Updated March 4, 2021
When a new llama arrives at your sanctuary, there are a number of critical steps that must be taken to ensure safety for the incoming resident, your existing residents, and yourself!
Identify The Specific Needs Of Incoming Individuals
While llamas, in general, have certain diet, housing, and care needs, you must also consider if the new arrivals require any special accommodations based on their age, health status, known history, or the circumstances of their recent living situation. Each new resident and situation will be different, but some things to consider include:
- If you’re taking in crias (baby llamas), you will have to learn how to properly care for them in terms of heat, food, and shelter and if you take in a pregnant llama, you will need to learn how to offer appropriate prenatal care.
- If you welcome a mother llama along with her nursing cria, you should not separate the two of them unless absolutely necessary for their health. If you must separate them, allow them to be close enough to touch if they choose to!
- If the new llama is from a starvation situation, be sure to work closely with your veterinarian to determine what to feed them. Offering unrestricted food sources to an animal who has been starved can result in serious health complications.
- Any time you welcome a new resident, you should take the time to closely observe their behaviors before entering their living space and make sure staff who will work with the resident know what physical cues to be on the lookout for that may indicate they are frightened or feeling confrontational. This is especially important if the new llama resident is a mature unneutered male. While not all intact males are confrontational, due to hormones, they do have the potential to cause injury to staff and other residents if they are feeling territorial.
- While not particularly common, staff should be aware of aberrant behavior syndrome (previously referred to as berserk male syndrome) and the behavioral issues that may arise from it. Much of what has been labeled berserk male syndrome is territorial and other inappropriate behaviors towards humans thought to be caused by overhandling crias and removing them from the company of other llamas where they would develop healthy relationships with other llamas and learn llama behaviors. Management and gentle, consistent training may help in this situation but an expert in this type of behavior issue should be consulted. Some veterinarians believe true aberrant behavior syndrome is caused by a brain tumor. In this case, gentle training is unlikely to be successful.
- If the new llama is very agile and appears to be fearful, or if the new resident is assumed to have escaped from their previous living situation, be sure to assess if your quarantine space can safely contain them. While most llamas will not attempt to jump fences if they feel safe and content in their living space, it is important to know that they are quite capable of jumping fences under certain circumstances. Not only do you want to avoid the new resident getting loose, they could also seriously injury themselves while trying to escape. Any time you take in fearful individuals, it is important to find gentle ways to help them become more comfortable around their caregivers. They may never become llamas who crave human attention (though some individuals who arrive very fearful, certainly do!), but you should be able to ease their fears and hence increase their comfort, even if they choose to keep their distance from humans.
Adhere To A Quarantine Policy
The new llama must be isolated in a strict quarantine area on your premises away from all other residents (not even nose-to-nose contact through a fence), even if you know exactly where the llama came from! At a minimum, new llamas must be kept away from other llama and alpaca residents, but could potentially spread disease to other residents as well. Quarantine is absolutely crucial to protect everyone from possible infectious diseases that may not be producing visible symptoms in a healthy-looking arrival; an entire herd could be easily infected, and possibly killed by certain diseases, and some diseases can contaminate pastures and live in the soil for quite some time. Even if the llama was previously healthy, a new environment can produce stress that might cause an illness flare-up. Conversely, existing residents might be carrying a disease that the new resident isn’t healthy enough to fight off yet!
If you’re taking in a whole herd that was living together previously, you can probably quarantine them together since it’s likely that any diseases they have will be already spread throughout the herd, and staying together may put the new residents more at ease. If an individual llama seems very ill or to be behaving oddly or has an open abscess, they should be isolated from the others until a veterinarian determines exactly what’s wrong. Monitor the herd to ensure that the current social situation is safe for everyone. Just because they came in together, doesn’t necessarily mean they get along well. If anyone appears to be getting picked on, find a way to split the group to reduce tensions while avoiding anyone having to live in isolation unless absolutely necessary.
Anyone coming into contact with the new llama should wear gloves and full body covering or immersion suits and should either wear boot covers or use foot baths. This is true even for healthy looking llamas, but is imperative if the llama is visibly ill, is producing undiagnosed discharge, or has diarrhea, sores or abscesses. These protective coverings should not be used outside of this quarantine space or you will defeat the purpose of wearing them in the first place! The new llama should remain in quarantine for a minimum of 30 days, and until all blood work and fecal exams come back with a clean bill of health. Make sure any external parasites have been eradicated before discontinuing quarantine, taking into account the life cycle of the parasite to ensure enough time has passed since the last instances of live parasites being found.
Ideally, you should have designated tools used only to clean the new llama’s space that are not used in other living areas. If this is not possible, all tools and cleaning supplies must be thoroughly disinfected before being used in other areas. If the arriving llama seems to be in poor health, has abscesses, unexplained discharge, or diarrhea, isolate the straw used in your quarantine area and do not spread it on other pastures; keep all materials the llama has contacted separated until they’ve been evaluated by a veterinarian. Depending on their evaluation and any testing they recommend, they may advise you continue to keep bedding separate pending certain test results.
Evaluating A New Llama’s Health
When welcoming a new resident to your sanctuary, it is imperative that you assess their overall health to ensure you are addressing any issues as soon as possible. This is accomplished through initial observations, conducting an intake examination, performing diagnostic testing, ongoing observation, and possibly a veterinarian’s assessment of the individual, especially if the new llama shows any signs of concerns.
Whenever you welcome a new resident to your sanctuary, it is crucial that you spend some time observing the individual upon arrival to determine any immediate needs they may have. If you or your staff picked up the individual and transported them back to the sanctuary, this observation process will actually begin before the new resident sets foot on sanctuary grounds. Through thoughtful observation, you may be able to identify signs of concern that warrant immediate veterinary care or further assessment on your part. This part of the intake process will also help determine if an intake examination must happen immediately or can wait for the new resident to settle in a little bit. In instances where you are taking in multiple new residents, this process will also help you prioritize individuals who appear to require more urgent assessment.
If you are taking in llamas who look very similar, you must have a system of identifying and documenting individuals while you are getting to know who is who. Every individual will have their own unique characteristics, so it may be helpful to take lots of pictures and write out thorough descriptions for staff and volunteers to refer to while learning everyone’s names. In some cases, additional, temporary identification may be needed to help everyone learn who is who. One option is to use different colored animal-safe temporary paint or grease markers. By placing a small mark or possibly their first initial on their side, staff may be better able to learn each individual’s name. These marks will fade overtime, and hopefully, by the time the mark wears off, staff will have a stronger sense of how to identify who is who. If a llama arrives with an ear tag, record their tag number if applicable (and consider taking a photo as well), and as long as it is not causing issues currently, we recommend you not remove it for at least 30 days and until you are sure you won’t be adopting the individual out of your region (to avoid having to ear tag them again in the future). Keep any removed tags with their records.
Prioritizing An Intake Examination
It’s important to perform an intake examination on all new residents, ideally within 24 hours of arrival, though some may need more immediate assessment. An intake exam includes conducting a full health examination to evaluate their overall health and to learn more about the individual, as well as gather important information for their permanent record. Be sure to follow quarantine procedures while conducting the intake exam. To learn more about the intake examination process, including how to prioritize assessing and addressing a new resident’s needs, check out our resource here! If, for whatever reason, you are unable to perform a full health examination shortly after their arrival, you will need to closely observe new residents for signs of concerns and take steps to address those concerns appropriately.
An intake examination is conducted in much the same way as a routine health examination- you should check every inch of the llama, looking for any signs of concerns, and providing any necessary treatments. While there are a variety of issues you may find during a new llama resident’s intake examination, there are some health challenges that are especially common in new llamas. These include:
- Foot Issues– Because sanctuaries often take in animals who may have had their needs neglected, very often new llamas arrive with overgrown nails. In most cases you should be able to trim them down to a normal length, but if the nail is severely overgrown or misshapen and you are not sure how much to trim, you should consult with your veterinarian. Be sure to check for any signs of foot rot, ulcerative pododermatitis, or other abnormalities, and work with your veterinarian to diagnose any issues and establish a treatment plan.
- Mobility Or Joint Issues– You should assess the llama’s mobility by watching them walk and looking for any abnormalities in their gait or shifting of weight when standing. When checking their legs, pay extra attention to their joints, feeling for any heat, swelling, or crepitus (popping or crunching). Mobility and joint issues should be evaluated by a veterinarian to determine the cause and appropriate treatment plan.
- Respiratory Issues– Watch closely, both during the intake examination and during the quarantine period, for any signs of respiratory illness such as nasal discharge, coughing, an elevated respiratory rate, fever, or breathing that sounds wet, raspy, or wheezy. Your veterinarian can evaluate the llama’s lungs, recommend diagnostic testing, and ultimately offer treatment options.
- Abscesses– Check their body thoroughly for any abscesses. Abscesses on the skin manifest as raised lumps, though not every lump is an abscess. One common cause of subcutaneous abscesses is Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL). This disease is spread through contact with the pus. If you take in a group of new llamas and only one individual has abscesses, you may want to separate them until diagnostics can be done to determine the cause. If it is CL, it’s possible the other llamas may have already been exposed, but it’s typically a good idea to keep individuals with open abscesses separated while the abscess is draining, especially if CL is a possibility.
- Excessive Wool– If you are taking in a llama with overgrown wool during the warm season, you must have them carefully shorn to prevent overheating. In the cold season, evaluate whether the wool would be preferable to leave to keep them warm, or if there is a concern that makes shearing them necessary. In some cases you may need to perform a partial shearing either to evaluate an area of concern or to address an issue such as urine scald. If the llama has copious amounts of wool or wool that is matted, felted or full of debris, they may need shorn regardless of the temperatures in order to better evaluate the individual and to make them more comfortable. In these cases, you will need to fit them with a coat or find other ways to keep them warm.
- Emaciation– It is not uncommon for new llamas to arrive severely underweight. This could be caused by many issues such as improper diet, dental issues, or disease. Be sure to have new residents who are significantly underweight evaluated by a veterinarian and talk with them about how to encourage safe weight gain. Be sure to have the veterinarian check their teeth in addition to running any diagnostics. Dental issues are a common, but sometimes overlooked cause of weight loss in mature llamas.
- Parasites– Llamas can suffer from both internal and external parasites. While there are a number of different parasites they can be affected by, perhaps those of particular concern are meningeal worm and barber pole. Both require immediate treatment, and while barber pole worm infections can be diagnosed with a fecal exam, meningeal worm cannot, so you must be on the lookout for signs an individual may be infected. Symptoms generally appear 6-8 weeks after initial infection and include neurological issues such as incoordination, difficulty rising, head tilt, blindness, circling, and weight loss. It is important to speak with your veterinarian about the risks in your area and how to best prevent infections, as it is difficult to diagnose and treat. While an incoming fecal sample will be able to identify a barber pole infection, due to the potential severity of this parasite, you should also be on the lookout for symptoms which include weight loss, pale mucous membranes (anemia), and swelling under the jaw (bottle jaw). If Barber pole is an issue in your area, talk to your veterinarian about best practices to prevent the growing issue of drug-resistance and about using FAMACHA as a screening tool.
In addition to looking for signs of concern, you should determine the following information. In some cases this will require veterinary involvement:
- Assess spay/ neuter/ pregnancy status: New males should be evaluated to determine their neuter status, though in some cases you may need a veterinarian to help with this if you are unsure. Intact males should be neutered as soon as your veterinarian deems appropriate. They will need time to recover after the surgery, which could extend their time in isolation if done towards the end of their quarantine period. Females who are sexually mature should be evaluated for pregnancy through an ultrasound and/ or blood testing. If an incoming resident is early on in their pregnancy, some sanctuaries choose to induce miscarriage. While there are closprostenol-based products (off-label for camelids) that can induce miscarriage, these should not be administered without the supervision of a veterinarian experienced in camelid reproductive care. The decision to induce miscarriage ultimately depends on an individual sanctuary’s Philosophy of Care.
- Approximate their age by looking at their teeth: We are not talking about evaluating their dental health here- that definitely requires an experienced veterinarian. However, by observing how many adult teeth a llama has, you can estimate their age. Unfortunately, it is very challenging to do this in individuals who are over 5 years of age, but this can be a useful tool for younger llamas. If you have never aged a llama in this way before, there are plenty of resources online that show how to do this, or you can work with your veterinarian and have them show you how. They may be better able to guess the age of a llama who has all their adult teeth by looking at how long or worn they are. Having a general idea of their age can be very helpful when considering their needs. When examining a llama’s teeth, never put your hand inside a llama’s mouth as they have very sharp teeth that can seriously injure a finger.
If you have not already done so, work with your veterinarian to determine appropriate incoming testing protocols for new llamas you welcome to your sanctuary. While individuals showing signs of concern may require additional diagnostics, there may be certain tests your veterinarian recommends for all incoming llamas. At a minimum, all new residents should have a fecal sample submitted to check for internal parasites. Your veterinarian will be able to recommend deworming treatments based on the fecal results. Be sure to submit another fecal sample 10-14 days after any deworming treatment to evaluate its effectiveness. In order to help prevent the ever-increasing resistance to available deworming medications, it’s important to only use dewormers when necessary and to work closely with your veterinarian if resistance to certain dewormers seems to be an issue. It’s important to note that E. macusaniensis is an especially long-incubating internal parasite that affects camelids, so it’s best to conduct a re-test fecal exam towards the end of quarantine to ensure that the individual isn’t infected. This will also give you another opportunity to confirm you won’t be spreading barber pole worm to your existing herd.
Consult with your veterinarian to see what tests they recommend for screening purposes, such as CL or Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) testing, and make sure you understand the test’s sensitivity and specificity (which will tell you what the chances of a false-negative or false-positive are). If a new resident has subcutaneous abscesses, the pus should be submitted for bacterial culture- this is a more accurate way to diagnose (or rule out) CL than the blood test.
Your veterinarian may recommend other testing based on the specifics of your region. Certain disease confirmations may require an official report to your local government- if testing for screening purposes only, you may want to have a conversation with your veterinarian about what a positive result would mean for the individual and the sanctuary.
Some health conditions may take time to show outward symptoms. For example, individuals with CL may arrive with no external signs of disease, so it’s important to continue to monitor them for signs of abscesses. While all residents should be observed closely each day, extra attention should be paid to new residents during their quarantine period to ensure any potential issues are caught and addressed as soon as possible.
Work with your veterinarian to establish a vaccine protocol for your llama residents based on the specifics of your resident population and your region. When new llamas arrive, your veterinarian can help determine if they are healthy enough for vaccination, which will depend on the vaccine. It may be best to wait to administer certain vaccines if the llama is sick, but with others it may be recommended that even llamas who are ill receive the vaccine as soon as possible.
Introducing The Newcomer To Other Llamas
If the new llama is much less mature than the existing herd, you may want to let them grow up a bit before introducing them to the rest of the herd to ensure their safety during their introduction and to give them time to build up enough immune system strength to handle any disease that might be lurking in the herd. Also, newly neutered llamas are still fertile for weeks after the operation, so make sure to wait until they’re completely sterile before they’re around any impregnable herdmates!
Once you’ve ensured that the new llama is healthy enough to join the resident herd, it can be a good idea to give the llamas time to get used to each other by living in separate, but adjacent, spaces. Consider letting the new llama live in the same barn as the resident herd without having physical access to one another. This will give them an opportunity to meet without the potential for injuries. You should consider giving the llamas at least two weeks of this transition period before letting them meet, though every introduction is different.
When you’re ready to introduce the new llama to the herd, it’s very important that you monitor their introduction in case you need to intervene! Llamas are more territorial than some species and, while neutering males may lessen the intensity of this, it is a normal part of llama behavior. The responses to a new member can be diverse, ranging from mild posturing to chasing, kicking, and biting. Previously friendly males may begin to fight with each other if a new female resident is introduced. Other established residents may feel territorial about their living space and the resources available and may attempt to prevent a new llama from joining. You can help facilitate a successful introduction by adding multiple sites for resources in the living area of the established herd. As long as no one is getting injured or overdoing it, it’s generally best to let llama residents sort things out for themselves. However, if things get out of hand, you’ll need to break up conflicts quickly. Watch closely to make sure no one is causing injury and that no one is exhausting themselves or showing signs of overheating. It’s especially important to monitor llamas in case one or more of them have their naturally sharp teeth (fighting teeth)! With all introductions, monitoring their first few days together is especially critical to make sure everyone is getting along. If llamas are closed indoors overnight due to risk of predation, you may need to offer the new llama their own space overnight since conflicts may be more likely to arise in confined spaces. Some introductions take a few tries. If it seems the new llama just isn’t working out in the herd, you may need to separate them for now and continue trying supervised visits, or if you have multiple herds, you may consider trying them with a different group.
Other good techniques to help the llamas get along include changing out bedding material with each other’s scents in order to familiarize the llamas with one another (after the new resident has completed quarantine), ensuring plenty of open space where the llamas socialize, eat, and drink (especially ensuring equal food and water access), and providing lots of space for newly introduced llamas to avoid each other. If the llamas are having constant trouble with each other, don’t give up hope yet! It may take a few introductions before they all get along. However, if it seems like the new llama will never be fully accepted into the herd, it would be better to create a second herd with a few individuals who get along well with each other, being careful not to separate bonded companions. A herd with a constantly bullied llama is an unacceptable living situation for the individual llama.
It may seem like a lot of extra steps than just releasing a new llama into the pasture, but if you follow the above guidelines, your new friend will have a much greater chance at a happy, healthy life with you and the herd!
Queries On Quarantine | Alpacas Magazine (Non-Compassionate Source)