It can be a challenge to ensure donkey residents have healthy, happy lives after coming to a sanctuary, and there are many different aspects of care to consider each day. Unfortunately, toxic and poisonous hazards are sometimes overlooked in the hustle and bustle of operating a sanctuary. While minor exposure to many of these toxins are unlikely to cause serious problems, large amounts can cause severe health issues and sadly, even death. There are also some toxins that are highly dangerous even in small amounts. Remember, donkeys are different from horses and less likely to show symptoms of illness so it is imperative any slight change in behavior is noted and addressed.
In order to help ensure you never run into this problem, we have compiled this resource of common plants and other potentially toxic things that been known to be a problem for donkeys.
Plants That Are Toxic To Donkeys
Please see The Open Sanctuary Project’s Global Toxic Plant Database and filter Species Afflicted by equines in order to see a list of plants across the world that are toxic to donkeys. Please note that, while comprehensive, this list may not contain every single plant toxic to donkeys!
Other Potential Donkey Toxins
Cantharidiasis (Blister Beetle Poisoning)
Blister beetles contain cantharidin, a toxic substance that is used as a defense mechanism against predators. There are more than 200 different species, and they can be found from Mexico to Southern Canada, and from the east coast of the United States as far west as New Mexico. Cantharidin can severely injure or kill donkeys when even a small amount is ingested. Donkeys come into contact with cantharidin by ingesting alfalfa hay that has been infested by blister beetles. The oily substance can contaminate the hay even if the beetles were crushed into the feedstuff. Crushing or chemically eradicating the beetles does not diminish the toxin potency.
Inspecting individual flakes of alfalfa hay before providing them to residents can help reduce the likelihood of poisoning. Dispose of any contaminated flakes, even if you have removed the beetle, as the toxin can still be left behind. First-cutting hay is less likely to be contaminated than hay harvested later in the year, as the insects likely haven’t yet swarmed by then. Harvest alfalfa before it fully blooms to reduce the chances of beetle contamination. Hay is less likely to be contaminated by crushed beetles when harvested with a self-propelled mower or windrower. Crimping hay crushes the beetles into the hay.
Donkeys that ingest a massive amount of toxin may show signs of severe shock, and unfortunately, die within hours. Classic clinical signs are dark, congested mucous membranes, and frequently drinking small amounts of water or submerging the whole muzzle in water and “water playing.” Other progressive signs include colic, depression, anorexia, ulceration of oral mucosa, diarrhea, polyuria (excessive diluted urination) leading to dysuria (difficulty urinating), sweating, delayed capillary refill time, tachycardia (abnormally rapid heart rate), tachypnea (abnormally rapid breathing), muscle rigidity, collapse, dehydration, and Synchronous diaphragmatic flutter (SDF), more commonly known as “thumps,” is a condition characterized by hiccup-like contractions of the diaphragm..
If you suspect Blister Beetle Poisoning, contact your veterinarian immediately. If early veterinary care is provided, afflicted donkeys have a chance of recovery.
Hardware Disease refers to the injuries that can result from any animal resident eating something they shouldn’t, especially pieces of human-made hardware like nails, screws, and staples. Hardware disease can have devastating effects on any resident. Check out our resource on Hardware Disease prevention here.
Lead was once used in paints and pesticides, and can also be found from natural environmental sources. Even if you have never used any products containing lead, it may still be present in old barn or fence paint, or in the soil. Places where old machinery and leaded gas have been stored may also have caused contamination, as would old treated lumber and railroad ties. Donkeys may ingest the lead in the environment through the consumption of grass, clover, and dandelion or from chewing or licking on tainted surfaces.
Having the soil tested at your sanctuary is an easy way to learn if the environment is safe for residents. You can check with a local environmental conservation service, or agricultural extension office to inquire about testing. It is usually a fairly quick and easy process. Prevent your residents from accessing buildings and fences with old paint, as they may chew or lick these objects and ingest lead.
Donkeys with low levels of lead toxicity do not generally exhibit signs. In general, donkeys are more stoic in nature and much more difficult to assess for pain. That being said, if severe cases, you may see the following symptoms:
- loss of appetite
- weight loss
- lethargy and weakness
- Anemia is a condition in which the blood is deficient in red blood cells, in hemoglobin, or in total volume.
- unusual manure consistency or diarrhea
- respiratory distress or blindness
Consult a veterinarian immediately if you suspect your donkey has ingested lead or is beginning to show symptoms of lead poisoning.
Mycotoxins are a toxin produced by molds (fungi) that are harmful to many animals. Mycotoxins can affect donkeys through contaminated food or bedding. Moist, warm environments make a perfect recipe for mold reproduction. The type and amount of mycotoxin a donkey digests affects whether the health issues are immediate and short-lived or may become chronic issues. Some general signs of poisoning include:
- appetite loss
- weight loss
- respiratory issues
- increased susceptibility to infectious diseases (poor immune function)
- poor growth rate
Prevention is key in avoiding serious health issues. Luckily, there are a number of steps you can take to help ensure resident donkeys do not suffer the ill effects of mycotoxin poisoning:
- Be sure to keep food, grain, and hay storage areas clean, dry, and cool
- Try to keep food storage areas protected from mice and rats and other wildlife, as they can chew holes in food bags, increasing the likelihood of grain being exposed to damp conditions
- Always feed the oldest bags of food first. Try to use up open bags within a few weeks after opening in the winter and in even less time in the summer
- Clean any storage bins or cans thoroughly to remove old grain that gets stuck in cracks and crevices
- Check with your food manufacturer or supplier to see if they regularly test for the presence of mycotoxins in grains before mixing food. If they do not, avoid using them and find another supplier
- Avoid corn screenings (small parts of corn grain that routinely carry very high levels of fumonisins) completely!
If you are concerned about the possibility of mycotoxin contamination, have your food stores tested. This could be especially important if you have a donkey that shows initial signs of mycotoxin exposure.
Possums are wonderful animals that do a lot for our local ecosystems. Unfortunately, possum feces can carry the protozoan that is responsible for causing equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). This is a serious neurological disease that affects horses. There are studies indicating that donkeys may be resistant to EPM but it would be smart to play it safe. Ingesting feed contaminated with this protozoan may potentially put a donkey at risk of contracting EPM. Sometimes, a possum may get into a food storage area and leave waste behind on hay that donkeys will eventually eat. Be sure you check hay for waste and dispose of any contaminated hay.
You can read more about compassionate ways to manage wildlife populations at your sanctuary here!
Other Animal Food
While you may think horses and donkeys are alike, there are some important differences. Donkeys need less protein and more fiber than horses and are able to thrive off of far less palatable fare. For this reason, they shouldn’t be fed exactly like horses as it isn’t best for them. Additionally, many foods for While "cows" can be defined to refer exclusively to female cattle, at The Open Sanctuary Project we refer to domesticated cattle of all ages and sexes as "cows." contain monensin and urea, both potentially hazardous to donkey health. Avoid allowing donkeys access to While "cow" can be defined to refer exclusively to female cattle, at The Open Sanctuary Project we refer to domesticated cattle of all ages and sexes as "cows.", bird, and pig licks in order to prevent potential poisoning.
Non-medicated cow, goat, and bird foods are not good for your donkeys, and medicated feeds can be fatal!
Medicated food for many other animals at sanctuaries contain Rumensin or Bovatec and other ionophores (antibiotics) to control disease. However, ionophores are EXTREMELY toxic to equines. The safest bet is to only give species-appropriate food to donkeys, and design you food storage rooms to prevent cross-contamination. Be sure food areas are secure from curious residents that may try to sneak in for a midday snack!
Donkeys that have ingested food with ionophores may exhibit restlessness, sweating, incoordination, and colic. You are unlikely to see these signs as noticeably as you might in horses so pay close attention to any change in behavior. Sadly, affected donkeys often die within 12 to 36 hours after exhibiting symptoms. Donkeys that ingested a smaller amount may recover but the toxin may cause permanent cardiac damage.
Pesticides, Herbicides, And Rodenticides
It may not come as a surprise that herbicides and rodenticides can cause toxicosis in donkeys if ingested. If donkeys ingest plants that have been sprayed with phenoxy acid herbicides, they can become ill or even die. For this reason, it is imperative that donkeys are not given treated plants or are allowed access to pastures that have been treated with herbicides.
While rats and mice can pose challenges for sanctuaries, it is important to respect them and use compassionate mitigation practices. Many rodenticides are anticoagulants and act by preventing the blood to clot. These products may be appealing to donkeys as well, and they may attempt to lick or eat them if discovered. For this reason, it is imperative that they do not come into contact with these poisons. There are many new and innovative ways to address rodent populations that are more effective and compassionate.
Pesticides may affect the nervous system in donkeys and can be fatal if not treated with the antidote. Early treatment is critical. If you suspect a donkeys may have ingested any of the poisons above, contact your veterinarian immediately. Blood tests may confirm poisoning.
Venomous snakebites are not common, but when they occur, should be treated seriously and immediately. The most common location for a donkey to be bitten are on the nose or leg. It is possible for a snake to bite several times, so if you notice a snakebite, look for others. Snake venom varies by species, and the severity of a bite can also be influenced by size, age, and the number of bites. Most venoms can impair blood clotting and damage the heart, while some others contain neurotoxins. Signs of a snakebite may include:
- Swelling at the bite site
- One or more puncture wounds
- Sloughing of tissues near the bite site
- Cardiac Arrhythmias are a problem with the rate or rhythm of your heartbeat. It means that your heart beats too quickly, too slowly, or with an irregular pattern
- Impaired ability for their blood to clot
Seek veterinary care immediately if a donkey is bitten by a venomous snake. Do NOT try to suck the venom out or place a tourniquet. Keep the donkey calm while seeking immediate veterinary care. Depending on the severity of the bit, treatments may include antivenin, pain medications, fluid therapy, wound treatment, tetanus vaccination, and antibiotics. Check out our Compassionate Wildlife Practices At Your Animal Sanctuary for some tips on how to dissuade snakes from your property.
Wood Stains And Paints
Some wood stains and paints can be toxic to donkeys. Donkeys may try to chew on painted surfaces and can become ill if the stain or paint is toxic. Try and purchase paints and stains that are specially made for barns and fencing and listed as animal or “livestock” friendly.
While this list isn’t exhaustive, it can certainly help you keep resident donkeys safe, healthy, and happy!
Plants Toxic To Horses | PennState Extension (Non-Compassionate Source)
Don’t Give Cattle Feed To Horses! | Kentucky Equine Research (Non-Compassionate Source)
The Danger Of Mycotoxins | The Horse (Non-Compassionate Source)
Toxin Topic: Snakebites And Horses | The Horse (Non-Compassionate Source)
Feeding Donkeys | Livestock Research For Rural Development (Non Compassionate Source)