This resource has been updated by the Open Sanctuary Project staff as of January 24, 2023. It was originally published on April 22, 2022.
Environmentalism can be broadly defined as a movement that deals with the relationship between humanity and the rest of the world. It generally recognizes that human impacts on the environment have often caused adverse effects to plants, animals, and larger ecosystems, and the value in protecting natural resources like oceans, mountains and forests as well as non-domesticated non-human animals (especially endangered animals) and their ecosystems. Environmentalists often make day to day choices in their lives that reflect their values, for instance choosing products that are biodegradable, or minimizing their use of fossil fuels by using bikes and or public transportation, or by planting pollinator friendly gardens full of native plants.
In a sense, the animal rights
The concept of providing nonhuman animals greater ethical and/or legal consideration to their basic interests, especially the avoidance of suffering and exploitation by humans. movement can be seen as a logical extension of the environmental movement. Advocates who push for the consideration of the rights of non-human animals are deeply concerned about how we, as humans, interact with non-human animals on a day to day basis, and how that interaction impacts the world around us. Our daily lives are often very much informed by our choices to reduce harmThe infliction of mental, emotional, and/or physical pain, suffering, or loss. Harm can occur intentionally or unintentionally and directly or indirectly. Someone can intentionally cause direct harm (e.g., punitively cutting a sheep's skin while shearing them) or unintentionally cause direct harm (e.g., your hand slips while shearing a sheep, causing an accidental wound on their skin). Likewise, someone can intentionally cause indirect harm (e.g., selling socks made from a sanctuary resident's wool and encouraging folks who purchase them to buy more products made from the wool of farmed sheep) or unintentionally cause indirect harm (e.g., selling socks made from a sanctuary resident's wool, which inadvertently perpetuates the idea that it is ok to commodify sheep for their wool). to non-human animals, for example by eschewing the consumption and use of animal productsAnything that originates from an animal’s body, including things like their eggs, feathers, flesh, honey, milk, and wool. like meat, eggs, milk, leather and feathers. And we also believe that industrial animal agricultureThe human production and use of animals in order to produce animal products, typically for profit. is a human activity that massively contributes to harms beyond animal abuse, acknowledging environmental harms such as deforestation, soil erosion, water pollution, and methane emissions that contribute to climate change.
When it comes to the animal sanctuary and rescue world, because our work fundamentally involves the liberation of marginalized and oppressed beings, it is unsurprising that much of our community prioritizes the consideration of the larger context in which we operate, and how we can not only change the lives of the animals that we directly love and care for, but also minimize any harmful impacts we may have on the larger natural world.
At the Open Sanctuary Project we have existing resources that address compassionate animal caregiving within the context of also caring for the larger natural world. We recognize that part of creating and maintaining sanctuary spaces involves consideration of our larger surrounding communities, both human and natural. We are proud to offer this resource as a consolidation of our work on questions around operating a sanctuary in the context of responsible environmental stewardship, and we look forward to adding to our existing offerings. This resource will be updated as we do so.
In any movement, education is a critically key component when it comes to opening hearts and minds to the consideration of new values, new considerations, and new practices. Sanctuary education is critically important when it comes to this, and it presents a special opportunity to introduce a better understanding of the intersections between compassionately caring for farmed animalsA species or specific breed of animal that is raised by humans for the use of their bodies or what comes from their bodies., and good environmental stewardship.
- Fostering Empathy Towards Farmed Animals starts with Entangled Empathy author Lori Gruen’s definition of empathy as “the ability to put oneself in the place of another and try to understand how the world looks to that other, not from one’s own perspective, but from the perspective of the individual going through it.” Fostering empathy is not just a critical step to developing compassion for farmed animals, but also is crucial when it comes to humans developing a better understanding of the natural world generally.
- Early Elementary-Age Sanctuary Education Lesson Plan #3 is the third part of a multi-part sanctuary education plan, and is designed to get youth digging in the dirt! Gardening is a great way to get community members to directly engage with the natural world, and to embed themselves in a meaningful relationship with a sanctuary community!
- Late Elementary-Age Sanctuary Education Lesson Plan #3 is the third part of a multi-part sanctuary education plan, and is designed to help sanctuaries incorporate pollinator gardening as an ongoing tool for sanctuary educators to encourage participants to think critically about the interconnections between the well-being of human and nonhuman animals, harmful activities like modern farming practices, and sanctuary-related work.
- The Plight Of Farmed Fishes is our starter resource for sanctuaries to learn about the exploitationExploitation is characterized by the abuse of a position of physical, psychological, emotional, social, or economic vulnerability to obtain agreement from someone (e.g., humans and nonhuman animals) or something (e.g, land and water) that is unable to reasonably refuse an offer or demand. It is also characterized by excessive self gain at the expense of something or someone else’s labor, well-being, and/or existence. of fishesWhile "fish" is often used to refer to multiple fishes, we use "fishes" to underscore that each fish should be considered as an individual with their own needs, preferences, and abilities, rather than as a monolith consisting of thousands of different species. in agricultural contexts. We also have additional resources on fishes which you can find at the link on wildlife in this resource below.
Climate and Natural Disaster Considerations
As our climate continues to change due to human activities (including animal agriculture) sanctuaries can find themselves facing new and unexpected challenges with regards to extreme temperatures and potential natural disasters such as wildfires. While these resources do not all directly address the issue of climate change per se, they can be useful guides for sanctuaries that are encountering new conditions as a function of climate change.
When it comes to temperature considerations, we have the following resources available to you!
- Farmed Animal Sanctuary Resident Living Space Temperature Considerations is a good starting guide when it comes to considerations around changing temperatures generally. It addresses how to keep your residents safe and comfortable year-round, taking into account each species’ and individual’s needs when it comes to temperature fluctuations.
- Summer And Hot Weather Considerations For Animal Sanctuaries and its associated Infographic is a multi species resource that addresses ways that you can keep sanctuary residents comfortable, safe and healthy in conditions of extreme heat.
- Winter And Cold Weather Considerations For Animal Sanctuaries similarly offers guidance for the care of multiple species in cold conditions. Climate change isn’t all about heat, as those of us who live in areas with the infamous “polar vortices” can attest!
- The Care of Chicken Residents in Extreme Cold is a species specific resource that addresses the issues that can arise when it comes to ensuring chicken residents’ comfort and safety with regards to those dreaded cold temperatures.
- The Importance Of Sun Protection For Pigs specifically addresses some of the challenges that pigs can face from sun exposure. Sunscreen isn’t just for humans!
Sadly, climate change related impacts on sanctuaries aren’t limited to just fluctuating temperatures and extreme weather conditions. As we have seen over the last year, wildfires have had a serious impact, and can present a serious risk to your sanctuary.
- Fire Safety At Your Animal Sanctuary is a great starting resource for anticipating and mitigating risks of fire to your infrastructure and your residents. Having a plan in place for such a situation is one of the most important steps you can take!
- Wildfire Preparedness For Your Animal Sanctuary specifically addresses some of the concerns you should be aware of when it comes to the possibility of wildfires. From advice on working with your local fire department, considerations around evacuation, and developing a fire preparedness and response plan, this resource can help you get ready for one of the scariest possibilities a sanctuary could face.
Land, Water, and Infrastructure
Living in community with sanctuary residents brings to light a lot of considerations when it comes to interfacing with the natural world. These resources can help you with that, from learning about naturally occurring toxic plants, to designing infrastructure with an aim of enabling residents to enjoy a more stimulating and natural existence while also enjoying safety from predation!
- The Open Sanctuary Project’s Global Toxic Plant Database is an incredibly useful tool when it comes to assessing your residents’ living areas. You can click through individual plants in this database to see more information, and use filters to be able to find the information most relevant to your sanctuary and residents. Being able to identify toxic plants and safeguard your residents from them is key to providing a safe environment!
- What Is A Land Survey And How Can It Help Your Animal Organization is a resource that discusses how working with land surveyors can help your sanctuary with all kinds of land related planning! From choosing a site, to planning new infrastructure, and from locating and planning around environmental features like wetlands, surveyors can of invaluable assistance in helping to make sure that you keep your residents safe as well as in helping to protect important natural resources!
- Resident Drinking Water Considerations At Your Animal Sanctuary gives you guidance to ensure that your residents have access to safe, clean, palatable and easily accessible water, as well as giving advice on water testing, daily cleaning and replenishment, and the right location and set up for water testing. The importance of quality water access for your residents can’t be emphasized enough!
- Preventing Hardware Disease At Your Animal Sanctuary is a resource that can help you secure your infrastructure so that you can avoid the consequences of your residents consuming potentially toxic or harmful human-made objects such as nails, screws, staples, wire segments, coins, jewelry or other small pieces of metal.
- Tips For Creating A More Eco-Friendly Animal Sanctuary and its associated Infographic offer a list of ideas for how a sanctuary can reduce its environmental imprint, from safely salvaging building materials, increasing water and energy efficiency, to creating pollinator friendly landscapes.
- Breaking The Mold: How Animal-Centered Design Can Transform Sanctuaries addresses the notion of designing spaces that can help enable sanctuary residents to thrive by considering how to go beyond basic design requirements for living spaces, and create habitats that look more like what residents would design for themselves if they could, which often involves envisioning and creating spaces that more closely resemble the natural spaces from which farmed animals’ ancestors came.
- Pigs and Mud: Let them Wallow! On a note related to the question of animal-centered design, this resource addresses providing a natural outlet for a particular behavior specific to pigs, which allows them to mimic behaviors that both wild pigs and their domesticatedAdapted over time (as by selective breeding) from a wild or natural state to life in close association with and to the benefit of humans ancestors enjoy: using mud, cool streams, and rivers to cool off safely.
- Early Elementary-Age Sanctuary Education Lesson Plan #3 focuses specifically on community gardening and animal enrichment in a sanctuary setting. Although this lesson plan was originally designed for early elementary-aged children, it can be adapted to meet the needs of other age groups. Happy harvesting!
Safe coexistence with wildlife is a critical part of providing sanctuary. Protecting residents from predation while also respecting wildlife’s right to exist can be a tricky proposition, but these resources can help you navigate that balance.
- Domesticated, Feral, Or Wild: What’s The Difference? This resource provides a brief overview of the definitions of what it means for an animal to be domesticated, feral, or wild, and includes some care examples for some species that fall under these classifications.
- Compassionate Wildlife Practices At Your Animal Sanctuary and its accompanying Infographic are designed to help you identify the best ways to avoid conflicts between sanctuary residents and wildlife generally, as well as offering some species specific guidance.
- Managing Requests to Take In and Help an Animal Outside the Scope of Your Sanctuary’s Mission deals with the tough reality that most animal sanctuaries receive daily requests to take in animals in need of humanitarian help. When it comes to wildlife, this resource gives guidance on crafting an effective rescue policy, as well as on what to do when dealing with wild animals in distress.
- Fly Mitigation Strategies For Sanctuary Cow Residents is designed to give you the advice on how to employ fly mitigation strategies to keep your cowWhile "cow" can be defined to refer exclusively to female cattle, at The Open Sanctuary Project we refer to domesticated cattle of all ages and sexes as "cows." residents safe and comfortable, while also considering the bigger impact on the environment and other living beings who may not be official residents, but still call your sanctuary home.
- How To Be More Bee-Friendly At Your Sanctuary and its accompanying Infographic addresses the danger of bee species becoming extinct. While bees are vital to our ecosystems and our overall survival, they are also worth saving because they matter. This resource can help your sanctuary become more bee-friendly, by giving tips on how to provide the right space and resources for native bees in your area.
- A Sanctuary’s Guide To Fish Advocacy And Care: Part 1 is a resource meant to help animal organizations navigate the question of providing sanctuary to farmed fishes. There is also an accompanying Infographic! If you can’t provide sanctuary to farmed fishes now, these resourcea offer guidance on how to advocate on their behalf.
- Fun Facts About Fishes is a great introductory resource that your animal organization can use to educate people about a lot of fascinating aspects of the lives of our fish friends!
- Further, we have even more infographics on fishes that can help you with this work! These include:
Any animal caregiverSomeone who provides daily care, specifically for animal residents at an animal sanctuary, shelter, or rescue. is extremely familiar with poop. Lots and lots of poop. Waste from industrial animal agriculture has hugely significant environmental impacts, and so in the sanctuary world, it’s really good to model more careful and thoughtful waste management practices. Also, while most people might not necessarily think of wool, fiber and eggs as “waste,” as veganAn individual that seeks to eliminate the exploitation of and cruelty to nonhuman animals as much as possible, including the abstention from elements of animal exploitation in non-food instances when possible and practicable as well. The term vegan can also be used as an adjective to describe a product, organization, or way of living that seeks to eliminate the exploitation of and cruelty to nonhuman animals as much as possible (e.g., vegan cheese, vegan restaurant, etc.). caregivers we need to be mindful that these things are not used in ways that promote the objectification of the animals who have produced them. These resources can help you navigate these questions!
- Introduction To Manure Management For Farmed Animal Sanctuaries covers several ways to manage the manure at your sanctuary and includes a guide to creating a manure management plan that will best suit your needs. Manure management is an important aspect of sanctuary management, in addition to keeping your residents safe and healthy.
- Advanced Manure Management: Putting Planning Into Action follows up on Introduction to Manure Management, providing more detailed information on setting up manure storage areas, managing runoff, and tips for limiting infestations and odors, among other information.
- Composting 101: The Scoop On Poop is the third resource in our series on manure management and explains the composting process and the tools and techniques required to successfully compost waste at your sanctuary. Composting can be a great option for sanctuaries because if done properly, it can reduce parasite and fly populations, limit offensive odors, and be spread onto pasture lands.
- What To Do With Wool And Fiber At A Sanctuary and its accompanying Infographic offer compassionate and non exploitative answers to this question which include using wool and fiber to support wildlife, to support oil spill clean up efforts, and in composting.
- What Should A Sanctuary Do With Residents’ Eggs similarly addresses how to deal with eggs in a non exploitative manner so that eggs can benefit both sanctuary residents, and possibly wildlife.
Communicable Animal Diseases
Parasites and naturally occurring viruses are all environmentally related risks when it comes to the care of farmed animal sanctuaryAn animal sanctuary that primarily cares for rescued animals that were farmed by humans. residents. While they may not necessarily be the first thing that comes to mind when it comes to your sanctuary and the environment, the epidemiology and implications of these kinds of diseases do have important implications, including with regards to questions like zoonosisAny disease or illness that can be spread between nonhuman animals and humans. and medication resistance. The resources listed below offer guidance with regards to these issues.
- Advanced Topics In Resident Health: Avian Influenza is a veterinarian reviewed resource that describes the means of contraction, symptoms, and ways to address the deadly avian influenza virus. It outlines biosecurityThe policies and protocols of an organization to limit the spread of illness and disease. and recordkeeping measures to protect your avian residents.
- Advanced Topics In Resident Health: Small Ruminant Lentiviruses (CAE and OPP) is a veterinarian reviewed resource that offers guidance on this group of viruses that affect small ruminants including sheep and goats, and cause lifelong infection.
- Advanced Topics In Resident Health: Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL/CLA) In Small Ruminants is a veterinarian reviewed resource which discusses this contagious and chronic disease, that affects both sheep and goats. It discusses diagnosis, treatment, and the prevention of further disease spread.
- Advanced Topics In Resident Health: Barber Pole Worm is a veterinarian reviewed resource that discusses this gastrointestinal roundworm of ruminants and camelids, which can cause serious disease, especially in sheep, goats, llamas and alpacas. It also discusses the question of medication resistance with respect to this tricky parasite.
- Advanced Topics In Resident Health: Johne’s Disease (Paratuberculosis) is a veterinarian reviewed resource that addresses the question of this contagious chronic inflammatory bowel disease that primarily affects the small intestine and interferes with nutrient absorption and potentially can affect all ruminants as well as possibly other species.
A very common issue that comes up within the environmental realm is the question of toxicity. From questions of toxic dumping, pollution from industry, and contamination of waterways…it seems like toxins are always on everyone’s minds. At the Open Sanctuary Project, we have also spent a lot of time thinking about toxicity, and specifically working on lists of things that are considered to be toxic to a myriad of different species that might be sanctuary residents! Below, you can find those lists by species in alphabetical order.
- Things That Are Toxic To Alpacas
- Things That Are Toxic To Chickens / Foods Toxic To Chickens Infographic
- Things That Are Toxic To Cows / Foods Toxic To Cows Infographic
- Things That Are Toxic To Donkeys
- Things That Are Toxic To Ducks
- Things That Are Toxic To Geese
- Things That Are Toxic To Goats / Foods Toxic To Goats Infographic
- Things That Are Toxic To Horses
- Things That Are Toxic To Llamas
- Things That Are Toxic To Pigs / Foods Toxic To Pigs Infographic
- Things That Are Toxic To Sheep / Foods Toxic To Sheep Infographic
- Things That Are Toxic To Turkeys / Foods Toxic To Turkeys Infographic
There is a natural connection between creating sanctuaries for survivors of animal agriculture, and environmental stewardship. Creating meaningful connections between humans and the non-human world is a critical part of both addressing the harms perpetuated by humans on the natural world, and the specific harms perpetuated with regards to animal exploitation. We look forward to continuing to explore the intersections and overlaps between these movements and sharing more resources with you in the future. If your sanctuary has practices in place to help protect the environment that you would like to share, or if you’re interested in learning more about practices we haven’t yet addressed, please feel free to reach out to us!