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    Potential Goat Health Challenges

    A brown and white goat stands in a pasture facing the camera. Behind them, out of focus, are 10 other goats.
    Dobbin and friends at Edgar’s Mission. Photo: Jo-Anne McArthur / We Animals Media

    Updated October 31, 2022

    When it comes to goats, if you want to ensure that you treat any health challenges as early as possible, you’ll have to spend a lot of time with the herd so slight changes and symptoms are more apparent to you. By conducting regular full body health examinations, you’ll be able to know what healthy looks and feels (and smells!) like, and when you should be concerned. Check out our guide to goat health examinations to familiarize yourself with the signs that something may be amiss with a goat resident. For more information on health challenges that commonly affect goat kids, check out our resource here.

    Animal Healthcare Disclaimer

    This is not an exhaustive list of everything that can happen to a goat, but can help you get a sense of what challenges a goat under your care may face in their lifetime. If you believe a goat is facing a health issue, always discuss with a qualified veterinarian as soon as possible. Reading about health issues does not qualify you to diagnose your residents!

    Issues By Body System

    Circulatory: Anaplasmosis, Anemia, Anthrax, Bottle Jaw, Listeriosis, White Muscle Disease

    Gastrointestinal: Barber Pole, Bloat, Clostridial Disease (Enterotoxemia, Necrotic Enteritis, Overeating Disease, Pulpy Kidney Disease), Coccidiosis, Grain Overload (Rumen Acidosis, Lactic Acidosis), Johne’s Disease, Liver Flukes, Tapeworms

    Lymphatic: Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL)

    Musculoskeletal: Arthritis, Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis (CAE), Infectious Foot Rot (Contagious Hoof Rot), Interdigital Dermatitis (Foot Scald), Laminitis, Overgrown Hooves, White Muscle Disease

    Neurological: Anthrax, Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis (CAE), Parelaphostrongylus Tenuis (Meningeal Worm, Deer Worm, Brain Worm), Listeriosis, Tetanus, Thiamine Deficiency

    Reproductive: Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis (CAE), Listeriosis, Mastitis

    Respiratory: Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis (CAE), Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL), Lungworms, Pneumonia, Sheep Nasal Bot Fly (Oestrus ovis)

    Urinary: Pizzle End Rot, Urinary Calculi

    Skin: Abscesses, Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL), Lice, Mange, Sore Mouth (Orf)

    Eyes: Pink Eye (Infectious Keratoconjunctivitis)

    Abscesses

    Abscesses are pockets of pus that can develop internally or externally. They can develop in any area of the body, but some common sites for goats include their feet, face, and neck. Abscesses can form for a variety of reasons, including infections, poor wound management, and benign reactions to vaccinations or injectable medications. Abscesses can also form as a result of Caseous Lymphadenitis, a highly contagious condition that can cause internal and external abscesses. This disease is spread through contact with the pus, so separating individuals with external abscesses is typically recommended. In the event of a suspected abscess, it should be first evaluated by a veterinarian or experienced caregiver- they can aspirate the lump to determine if it is an abscess or not. Depending on the location, size, and whether or not the goat is displaying other signs of concern, your veterinarian may decide to lance the abscess. In most cases, a culture will be recommended to determine the best course of action. Your veterinarian will be able to advise you about any necessary treatments based on the cause of the abscess. If you have not been trained to identify and lance an abscess, you must work closely with your veterinarian. Not all external lumps are abscesses, and cutting into tumors or other masses could result in serious issues. Also be aware that any abscess on the neck or near major blood vessels should always be evaluated by a veterinarian. In these instances, it may be too dangerous to lance the abscess due to the risk of major bleeding. 

    Goats can also develop abscesses in their feet, affecting either the heel or the toe. Whereas some other foot issues tend to affect more than one foot, foot abscesses may only affect one claw. While not the only possible cause, individuals may develop a foot abscess following trauma to the foot such as from stepping on something sharp or from improper hoof trimming. Signs of a foot abscess include swelling of the affected claw and swelling at the coronary band, heat, and acute lameness with the individual often reluctant to bear weight on the affected claw. If the abscess has ruptured, you may note discharge coming from a draining tract. In cases where the abscess has not yet ruptured, your veterinarian may open it up while trimming the hoof, or they may lance the swollen area. Be sure to consult with your veterinarian regarding treatment, which may include analgesics and antibiotics (systemically or flushed into an open abscess) and bandages or blocks to protect the affected claw. If foot abscesses are a common occurrence, work with your veterinarian to identify possible causes so you can work to address them.

    Source:

    Abscess | Veterinary Handbook For Sheep, Goats, And Cattle (Non-Compassionate Source)

    Goat Hoof Care And Foot Rot Prevention | Goats Extension(Non-Compassionate Source)

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    Anaplasmosis

    Anaplasmosis in goats is caused by the bacterium Anaplasma ovis, which parasitizes red blood cells. While many infected goats will remain asymptomatic, it can cause severe disease, especially in older goats. Anaplasmosis is an infectious disease that is typically transmitted by insects such as ticks and biting flies, but can also be spread through any practices that may expose goats to infected red blood cells (such as by reusing needles or not sterilizing surgical equipment). It may be possible to also transmit the disease in the womb. Signs of anaplasmosis include fever, pale mucous membranes, weakness, and dark urine. Infected individuals may exhibit additional signs such as depression, constipation, an elevated respiratory rate, and inappetence. Be sure to contact your veterinarian immediately if one of your residents is showing signs of anaplasmosis. They can diagnose the issue and recommend treatment, which may include intravenous antibiotics (typically a tetracycline drug) and possibly a blood transfusion.

    Sources:

    Anaplasmosis | Purdue University College Of Veterinary Medicine

    Anaplasmosis | Merck Veterinary Manual

    Sheep And Goat Medicine, Second Edition | D.G. Pugh And A.N. Baird  (Non-Compassionate Source)

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    Anemia

    Anemia in goats is characterized by pale mucous membranes, especially the mucous membranes of the lower eyelid. An anemic goat might be more lethargic, have a dull or shabby coat, and lose weight. Anemic individuals may also develop Bottle Jaw. In addition to treating the anemia, it is imperative to identify the cause, which could be due to parasitic disease (especially Barber Pole worm), ingestion of a toxin, or trauma. In areas where Barber Pole worms are common, this will likely be the most common cause of anemia in sheep and goats. Be sure to work closely with your veterinarian if one of your residents appears to be anemic. They can help determine the cause of the anemia and offer treatment recommendations. Depending on the severity of the anemia, they may also recommend a blood transfusion. If you have not already done so, talk to your veterinarian about using the FAMACHA system to regularly evaluate residents for signs of anemia. 

    Sources:

    White Eyes And Bottle Jaw:  Are There Zebras? | American Consortium for Small Ruminant Parasite Control

    Sheep And Goat Medicine, Second Edition | D.G. Pugh And A.N. Baird  (Non-Compassionate Source)

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    Anthrax

    Anthrax is caused by Bacillus anthracis spores, which can lie dormant in soil for many years. The bacteria is more common in temperate climates and can come to the surface after heavy rains, especially after periods of drought. Animals who graze are susceptible to the disease after eating contaminated grass. Symptoms include depression, incoordination, staggering, trembling, convulsions, excitement, high fever, bleeding, and unfortunately, typically death. If you suspect a goat has anthrax, you must contact your veterinarian immediately. The infected goat can quickly spread the disease to other animals, including humans. Confirmations of anthrax must be reported to government officials. If it is treated very early on with antibiotics, it is possible for goats to survive. There is also a vaccine available for anthrax.

    Sources:

    Anthrax Facts | AVMA

    Goat Anthrax | Extension (Non-Compassionate Source)

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    Arthritis

    There are many types of arthritis with different causes (including septic arthritis, which can be quite common in kids who did not receive colostrum), but osteoarthritis (degenerative joint disease) tends to be quite common in small ruminants as they age. Goats may also develop arthritis due to Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis (CAE). Symptoms of arthritis will vary depending on the affected area and cause, but typically include an abnormal gait, shifting of weight, lameness, and reduced activity. Individuals with arthritis may spend more time laying down, putting them at risk of developing pressure sores, and they may have difficulty getting up. 

    Anyone showing signs of mobility issues should be evaluated by a veterinarian to determine the underlying cause and best course of action. Without pain management, arthritis can cause chronic pain (ranging in severity from mild to debilitating) and can affect an individual’s activity level and quality of life. While there is no cure for osteoarthritis, your vet will be able to recommend a treatment plan based on the specific cause, while taking into account their overall health. They may recommend a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), such as meloxicam or banamine, or other analgesics such as tramadol or gabapentin.

    Another treatment option to consider, and one that can be used in conjunction with the analgesics listed above, is a chondroprotective agent such as glucosamine to help repair joint cartilage and soothe inflammation. Some sanctuaries have also seen some success treating arthritis pain with alternative therapies such as acupuncture and veterinary laser therapy as well as more natural remedies (in conjunction with conventional medication) such as Boswellia (also known as Indian frankincense), turmeric, and small ruminant-safe herbal formulas designed for joint health. Your veterinarian may also recommend a topical treatment such as diclofenac sodium ointment (ex. Surpass) or a formula designed for human use such as Aspercreme. Be sure to talk to your veterinarian about the most appropriate pain management plan for each of your residents and talk to them about conducting blood work both before certain treatments (such as NSAID treatment) to ensure the treatment is not contraindicated and to establish a baseline against which to compare future blood work results. We also recommend talking to them about conducting regular blood work for individuals on certain long-term treatments to monitor organ function and watch for adverse effects.

    In addition to offering treatments to reduce inflammation and pain, make sure that their environment is as arthritis-friendly as can be, minimizing steep grades or long walks to food or water, and be sure to provide ample bedding to reduce their risk of developing pressures sores if they are spending more time lying down that usual. While osteoarthritis does not only affect elderly individuals, it certainly is a common health condition in elderly residents. You can read more about caring for elderly goats here.

    Source:

    Additional Care Recommendations For Older Goats | The Open Sanctuary Project

    Goat Care | Farm Sanctuary

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    Barber Pole

    Barber pole worm (Haemonchus contortus, sometimes called wireworm) is a gastrointestinal roundworm that can cause serious disease in sheep, goats, llamas, and alpacas. While other gastrointestinal parasites can cause illness in small ruminants and camelids, barber pole worm is especially dangerous because it is a blood-sucking parasite that has the potential to cause life-threatening anemia. To further complicate things, anthelmintic resistance (resistance to dewormers) is a serious and growing issue, though the degree of resistance and to which drugs worms are resistant will vary region by region and also property to property. For more information on barber pole worm, including ways to slow the development of anthelmintic resistance, check out our in-depth resource, here.

    Source:

    Advanced Topics In Resident Health: Barber Pole Worm | The Open Sanctuary Project

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    Bloat

    In ruminants, a significant amount of gas is produced during the digestive process and is naturally released through eructation (belching). Bloat occurs if this gas is not able to be released for some reason. The build-up of gas causes the rumen to expand, which will displace and put pressure on internal organs and can make it difficult for the individual to breathe. Bloat should be considered a health emergency and must be addressed immediately. You can read more about this topic here.

    Sources:

    Bloat In Ruminants | The Open Sanctuary Project

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    Bottle Jaw

    Bottle Jaw is the term commonly used to describe edema in the lower jaw which manifests as a visibly swollen area under the jaw. Bottle jaw is a symptom of numerous health challenges, and while it can have other causes, most often bottle jaw develops because of reduced oncotic pressure resulting from anemia or hypoproteinemia (low protein levels in the blood). Be sure to work with your veterinarian if one of your residents is showing signs of bottle jaw- it is important to diagnose the underlying cause in order to make treatment decisions. In goats, bottle jaw is most often associated with barber pole worm infections, though it can be caused by other internal parasites or other health challenges, such as Johne’s disease.

    Sources:

    Bottle Jaw | Veterinary Handbook For Cattle, Sheep & Goats

    White Eyes And Bottle Jaw:  Are There Zebras? | American Consortium for Small Ruminant Parasite Control

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    Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis (CAE)

    CAE is a retroviral infection that can affect sheep and goats. Once an animal is infected, they are infected for life. Check out our article about CAE here.

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    Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL)

    Caseous lymphadenitis is a contagious and chronic disease that causes abscesses in sheep and goats and is caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. For more information, on this disease, check out our resource Caseous Lymphadenitis In Small Ruminants.  

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    Clostridial Disease

    There are many clostridial organisms that can live in the soil and even in the gastrointestinal tract of healthy animals. While there are a host of clostridial organisms that can cause disease in goats, the most common are Clostridium perfringens types C and D and Clostridium tetani. Because of the prevalence of these pathogens and the fact that they produce toxins that often cause fatal disease, vaccination is universally recommended in North America. There is a three-way vaccine, referred to as CDT, that protects against all three of these pathogens and the diseases they cause, as well as an eight-way vaccine that protects against additional clostridial diseases as well. Talk to your veterinarian about which vaccine makes the most sense for your residents, as additional clostridial diseases may be a concern in certain regions.

    C. perfringens type C most often affects young kids, causing hemorrhagic enterotoxemia or necrotic enteritis. Kids may die without showing signs of illness, but more often they will develop diarrhea that is yellow, and they may have streaks of blood in their feces. Affected kids will not want to eat, will show signs of colic, and will tense their abdominal muscles, especially when being handled. Unfortunately, this disease is often fatal, ending in convulsions and coma. If C. perfringens type C infection is recognized early, treatment with antibiotics, Clostridium antitoxin, and supportive care may help, but often once there are clinical signs of disease, treatment is not successful.

    C. perfringens type D causes classic enterotoxemia in goats and is also referred to as “overeating disease” and “pulpy kidney disease”. This disease is often associated with over ingestion of grain, but can also result from over ingestion of milk or lush pasture, and can also be caused by an abrupt change in diet (such as sudden introduction of lush pasture or increase in grain). As a result of over ingestion or sudden diet changes, C. perfringens type D proliferates and produces toxins. While it occurs most often in kids, unvaccinated adults can also be affected. As compared to sheep, goats typically develop less severe neurologic signs but more severe enteritis. Initial signs of enterotoxemia caused by C. perfringens type D include inappetance, bloat, and a dull or drunken appearance. The individual will often become unable to stand, lying on their side and possibly paddling their legs, and will develop a fever and diarrhea- often with blood present. If caught early, treatment with antibiotics, Clostridium antitoxin, and supportive care, as well as adjustments to their diet may help.

    C. tetani is found in the soil and causes tetanus when introduced to the tissue via a wound, surgical procedure, or even intramuscular injection. The incubation period varies, with signs of tetanus developing anywhere between 1 and 60 days after introduction of C. tetani. Tetanus is a progressive disease. Though often missed, the first sign of tetanus is often a tensing of the muscles in the head and neck. Within the first 24 hours, individuals often develop gas bloat. As the condition progresses, the individual will develop more generalized stiffness that involves their head, neck, limbs, and tail. Affected goats may lay on their side and be unable to rise or stand in a “sawhorse” stance. Treatment involves high doses of antibiotics, administration of tetanus antitoxin, medications to relieve muscle spasms, supportive care, and if there is a necrotic wound present, debridement of the wound. The individual should be kept in a quiet, dark space with ample bedding and minimal stimulation while they recover. Unfortunately, death due to respiratory paralysis is common. If a young or new resident has not yet been vaccinated and requires surgery (such as neutering) or becomes wounded, your veterinarian can administer tetanus antitoxin to provide temporary protection.

    Your best course of action is to prevent the above diseases by establishing an appropriate vaccination program with your veterinarian, such as administration of the three-way CDT vaccine. Generally, newly rescued adult goats with unknown vaccination status should be vaccinated soon after arrival, so long as they are healthy enough. Kids fed an appropriate amount of colostrum from a vaccinated individual receive passive immunity to these clostridial diseases. This immunity is temporary and will begin to fade when kids are about 6 weeks old. Vaccinating these kids when they are about 6-8 weeks old will ensure continued protection against these dangerous diseases. Kids who did not receive colostrum from a vaccinated individual (and therefore did not receive passive immunity) should be vaccinated for clostridial diseases at an earlier age, typically when they are between 3-4 weeks old. Kids with unknown immunity or vaccination status should also be vaccinated between 3-4 weeks of age. Be sure to administer subsequent boosters following the manufacturer’s instructions or your veterinarian’s recommendations.  

    Sources:

    Goat Enterotoxemia | eXtension: Goat Community Of Practice

    Sheep And Goat Medicine, Second Edition | D.G. Pugh And A.N. Baird  (Non-Compassionate Source)

    Large Animal Internal Medicine 5th Edition | Bradford P. Smith (Non-Compassionate Source)

    CDT Vaccinations | Maryland Small Ruminant Page (Non-Compassionate Source)

    Enterotoxemias | Merck Veterinary Manual (Non-Compassionate Source)

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    Coccidiosis

    While it is common for mature goats to shed the parasitic protozoa coccidia in their feces, coccidiosis is primarily a concern in kids under 6 months of age and is most likely to occur in agricultural settings where goats are confined, overcrowded, or kept in unsanitary conditions. Clinical disease can be precipitated by stress, and the disease is often associated with the stress of weaning. While healthy, mature individuals are mostly resistant to clinical disease, individuals with an impaired immune system or who are under extreme stress could develop coccidiosis. 

    There are numerous species of coccidia found in the environment, but not all are pathogenic (disease-causing). Additionally, while it used to be thought that sheep and goats were affected by the same species of coccidia, it is now understood that coccidia are host-specific. Pathogenic species that affect goats include E. arloingi and E. christenseni. High numbers of pathogenic coccidia cause damage to the lining of the intestine, affecting nutrient absorption. Diarrhea is a common sign of coccidiosis.

    Eimeria oocysts (egg-like structures) are passed in feces of infected individuals and become infective a few days later (timing depends on environmental conditions). Once infective, oocysts are difficult to kill in the environment – disinfectants are not effective, but direct sunlight, steam cleaning, and extreme desiccation can reduce environmental contamination. Other individuals become infected by ingesting infective oocysts in contaminated food or water or when grooming themselves or their companions. Though healthy, mature individuals are not at risk of developing clinical disease, they can act as reservoirs for the parasite, resulting in contamination of the environment. 

    While fecal testing can be used to detect oocysts, diagnosis is not straightforward. Remember, not all strains of coccidia are pathogenic, and healthy individuals can pass coccidia in their feces, so the presence of coccidia in a fecal sample does not necessarily mean that treatment is necessary. Additionally, early in the disease, an individual may have a negative fecal test despite being infected. It’s important to work closely with your veterinarian to interpret fecal test results and to evaluate residents showing signs of concern. They can help you determine if and when treatment is necessary.

    Sources:

    Diagnosis, Treatment, And Prevention Of Common Small Ruminant Parasites | Dr. Mary Smith, DVM (Non-Compassionate Source)

    Coccidiosis: Deadly Scourge Of Lambs And Kids | Maryland Small Ruminant Page (Non-Compassionate Source)

    Sheep And Goat Medicine, Second Edition | D.G. Pugh And A.N. Baird  (Non-Compassionate Source)

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    Grain Overload (Rumen Acidosis, Lactic Acidosis)

    Grain overload occurs when a ruminant eats highly digestible carbohydrates in large quantities or when they are not used to eating such foods. In a sanctuary setting, grain overload is most often caused by residents accidentally gaining access to grain storage areas but could also occur if a resident who requires grain supplementation is fed too much or is not slowly transitioned onto this diet. Depending on the circumstances, it’s not uncommon to find that the dominant member of the group is most affected since they tend to ingest the most and eat most rapidly.

    Despite commonly being called “grain overload,” grain is not the only food source that can cause this condition. However, in a sanctuary setting where residents are fed an appropriate diet, it would be rare for many of the other problematic foods to be available in the amount needed to cause an issue. Fruits, including apples and grapes, as well as sugar beets, potatoes, and bread products can also cause this condition. How much of a particular food is needed in order to cause illness is dependent on the food, what the individual is used to eating, and other factors. Ingestion of grains with a smaller particle size typically results in more severe illness (compared to the same amount of grain of a larger particle size) because it will be broken down more quickly.

    Ingestion of carbohydrates, either in excess or by individuals who are not used to such diets, will result in a drop in rumen pH and changes in the rumen microflora. Gram-positive bacteria, which produce lactic acid, will increase (further lowering rumen pH), and other rumen microbes will die. Rumen motility slows, resulting in stasis and mild bloat. This condition can be fatal – prompt intervention is imperative. Be sure to contact your veterinarian immediately if a resident is showing signs of grain overload or if they got into large amounts of grain (or other concerning foods), even if they are not showing signs of illness yet. If you have activated charcoal products, such as Universal Animal Antidote, ask if administration is advised.

    Clinical signs of grain overload typically appear within 12-36 hours and vary depending on what/how much the individual ate. Signs include abdominal distension, a “sloshy” rumen (you can often hear the sloshing when standing next to them), depression, colic (including kicking or biting at their abdomen or shifting weight on their hind legs), dehydration, and weakness (which may be so severe that the individual becomes recumbent). The individual will stop eating and may develop diarrhea. Individuals may develop neurologic signs such as ataxia, head pressing, or seizures. 

    Be sure to seek immediate veterinary care if an individual is showing signs of grain overload. In some cases, removal of rumen contents through rumenotomy (surgical incision into the rumen) or lavage (using a stomach tube) will be required. Both carry risk, and your veterinarian will determine the best course of action given the specifics of the situation. Transfaunation (ruminal fluid transfer) to restore healthy microflora and fluid therapy to address dehydration and metabolic acidosis are important. Your veterinarian may also prescribe antibiotics (penicillin is commonly used) and thiamine or multivitamin injections depending on the severity of the illness. They may also recommend certain dietary restrictions while the individual recovers.

    Be sure to take measures to prevent grain overload. Make sure all grain is stored out of reach and secured from residents, and if a resident needs supplemental grain added to their diet, talk to your veterinarian about how to safely introduce this. Also be aware of other risks on your property such as large numbers of apple trees in or overhanging resident pastures. 

    Sources:

    UAA (Universal Animal Antidote) Gel | Drugs

    Grain Overload In Ruminants | Merck Veterinary Manual (Non-Compassionate Source)

    Sheep And Goat Medicine, Second Edition | D.G. Pugh And A.N. Baird  (Non-Compassionate Source)

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    Infectious Foot Rot (Contagious Hoof Rot)

    Infectious foot rot (sometimes spelled “footrot” or used interchangeably with the term “hoof rot”) is a bacterial infection that affects both sheep and goats. Though there are often multiple bacteria involved, Dichelobacter nodosus (formerly Bacteroides nodosus) must be present to be considered true foot rot. The other bacteria most often associated with foot rot, but which in the absence of D. nodosus does not cause true foot rot, is Fusobacterium necrophorum. On its own, F. necrophorum causes interdigital dermatitis (sometimes referred to as “scald”) but can make the foot vulnerable to infection with D. nodosus. There are numerous strains of D.nodosus with varying degrees of virulence. Some countries, such as Australia, categorize infectious foot rot as benign or virulent based on the strain, but this is less common in other parts of the world, including in the US. 

    Foot rot typically occurs in areas with periods of warm, wet weather – with spring and fall being the common times for transmission. In addition to wet conditions, overgrown hooves can also make foot rot infections more likely. Sheep and goats with foot rot contaminate the environment with D. nodosus which can then infect other residents. D. nodosus can only survive for between a few days and a few weeks in the environment, but infected sheep and goats can be carriers for years. 

    Unlike in sheep, clinical signs in goats are not always a good indicator of whether or not they have a benign or virulent strain. Goats with foot rot can develop significant lameness, which could result in them walking on their knees, but the condition is usually less severe in goats than in sheep. Signs of foot rot in goats include red, moist, inflamed tissue between the claws, mild to severe separation of the hoof wall from the sole, a foul odor, and a black tarry appearance.  

    Affected individuals often have rot in more than one foot, and both claws are usually affected. If you suspect a resident has foot rot, be sure to get your veterinarian out to examine the individual(s). Foot rot is usually diagnosed based on clinical signs. Treatment typically involves trimming of the hoof, application of a topical antibiotic treatment (tetracycline is a common one) or medicated foot baths and possibly systemic antibiotics. Please note – there is conflicting information regarding whether or not hoof trimming assists in the healing process or not. Be sure to work with your veterinarian for specific recommendations. Depending on the situation, they may also recommend fully isolating the affected individual or taking measures to prevent exposing other groups of sheep and goats to the bacteria. In severe cases, you may be advised to remove all sheep and goats from certain living spaces temporarily in order to prevent reinfection. Prevention is key – be sure to regularly trim your residents’ hooves, keep indoor living spaces dry and clean, and make sure outdoor areas have adequate drainage.

    Sources:

    Footrot | Veterinary Handbook For Sheep, Goats, And Cattle

    Sheep And Goat Medicine, Second Edition | D.G. Pugh And A.N. Baird  (Non-Compassionate Source)

    Footrot In Sheep And Goats | Purdue Extension (Non-Compassionate Source)

    Foot Rot Or Scald: Which Is It? | University Of Maine Cooperative Extension (Non-Compassionate Source)

    Contagious Foot Rot In Goats | Goats Extension (Non-Compassionate Source)

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    Interdigital Dermatitis (Foot Scald)

    This condition is sometimes referred to as “foot scald” but that term can be confusing because it is sometimes used to describe benign strains of foot rot. Interdigital dermatitis is caused by the bacteria Fusobacterium necrophorum (this bacteria is typically seen in combination with Dichelobacter nodosus, the bacteria that causes infectious foot rot), and often occurs in warm, wet conditions. If the foot is exposed to wet conditions for prolonged periods of time, it can become vulnerable to damage, especially between the claws, which allows bacteria to enter. Goats with interdigital dermatitis will have inflammation of the tissue between the claws, and the skin may be discolored, moist, raw, and sensitive. They may develop severe lameness and be seen holding up a foot or limping. Individuals with this condition are vulnerable to infectious foot rot. 

    Treatment typically involves limiting the individual’s exposure to wet areas and a topical treatment of zinc sulfate. In some cases, trimming the hair around the hoof can help the foot to dry out more quickly. Though sometimes recommended as a treatment, copper sulfate should be avoided due to the possibility of copper toxicity if ingested.

    Sources:

    Sheep And Goat Medicine, Second Edition | D.G. Pugh And A.N. Baird  (Non-Compassionate Source)

    Foot Rot Or Scald: Which Is It? | University Of Maine Cooperative Extension (Non-Compassionate Source)

    Foot Scald | North Carolina Extension (Non-Compassionate Source)

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    Johne’s Disease

    Also known as paratuberculosis, Johne’s disease is a fatal contagious gastrointestinal disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). It is believed that all species of ruminants and camelids are susceptible to this infection, with young individuals being most vulnerable. The primary mode of transmission is the fecal-oral route, but it can also be transmitted via colostrum and milk. For more information about this challenging disease, including information regarding diagnostics and ways to mitigate disease spread, check out our full resource on Johne’s disease here.

    Source:

    Advanced Topics In Resident Health: Johne’s Disease (Paratuberculosis) |The Open Sanctuary Project

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    Laminitis

    Laminitis, inflammation of the soft tissues of the hoof, is a painful condition that, while more common in equines, can also affect goats. Laminitis is often associated with diet- sudden access to or overconsumption of concentrates or lush forages, a diet high in protein, or a diet high in grain and low in roughage could predispose a goat to laminitis. Certain illnesses, such as pneumonia, mastitis, and metritis, can also play a role in the development of laminitis. Signs of laminitis include lameness, a stiff gait, feet that are noticeably hot, and pain and sensitivity at the coronary band. You may hear the individual grinding their teeth due to pain, and they may develop a fever. Sometimes only the front feet are affected, but in more severe cases, all four feet are affected. Without treatment, laminitis can become a chronic condition resulting in changes in the shape of their claws and a difference in height between the inner and outer claws. In chronic cases, knee walking is common and hoof material is often very hard, making it difficult to trim. Be sure to work with your veterinarian if you suspect one of your residents has laminitis. In acute cases, in addition to analgesics (typically an NSAID), it’s important to also identify the underlying cause (and correct/ treat it if possible). In chronic cases, frequent, aggressive hoof trimming will be necessary. Your veterinarian can guide you in how often and how aggressively to trim their feet. While not all laminitis is associated with dietary issues, ensuring your residents are on a proper diet and avoiding sudden changes to their diet is helpful in preventing this condition. If someone needs supplemental grain, be sure to introduce this slowly. Pay close attention to your residents’ hooves during routine health examinations and contact your veterinarian if you notice abnormal growth or changes to the shape of the hoof. 

    Sources:

    Laminitis In Goats And Sheep Explained By The Lifestyle Vet | Lifestyle Animal Veterinary & Support Services

    Laminitis In Goats | Merck Veterinary Manual

    Sheep And Goat Medicine, Second Edition | D.G. Pugh And A.N. Baird  (Non-Compassionate Source)

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    Lice

    There are multiple species of goat lice, including Bovicola caprae, B. limbata, and B. crassipes, all of which are chewing lice that feed on skin cells and debris, and Linognathus stenopsis and L. africanus, which are sucking lice that feed on blood. While lice tend to be species-specific, it is possible for goats who live with sheep to become infected with some types of sheep lice and vice versa. Lice populations tend to be highest in winter and late spring. Because of the irritation caused by lice, infected goats will rub, scratch, and bite at their hair. Their coat may be dull, and they may develop bald patches and skin abrasions from scratching. Depending on the severity of the infestation, affected individuals may lose weight, and those with sucking lice infestations may become anemic. Lice are transmitted via direct contact with infected animals and via infected fomites. When checking goats for lice, whether during a routine health exam or because they seem itchy, you can differentiate between chewing and sucking lice by the color and shape of the louse. A sucking louse will have a narrower head than a chewing louse and will also be a bluish color compared to the yellow color of chewing lice (while lice can be seen with the naked eye, you may need a microscope or magnifying glass in order to really make out the shape of their head). Individuals with a compromised immune system may be more severely affected than their herdmates, but even if you can only find lice on one member of the herd, you should plan on treating the entire herd. Treatment typically involves multiple applications of a goat-safe topical insecticide. There are various products labeled for use against lice in goats- your veterinarian can help you determine which treatment to use. Goat breeds typically raised for their fiber, such as Angora goats, may need to be shorn (if the weather allows)- shearing will reduce lice populations and can also make some topical treatments more effective.

    Sources:

    Sheep And Goat Medicine, Second Edition | D.G. Pugh And A.N. Baird  (Non-Compassionate Source)

    Lice In Sheep And Goats | Merck Veterinary Manual (Non-Compassionate Source)

    Lice: What They Are And How To Control Them | North Carolina State Extension (Non-Compassionate Source)

    External Parasites Of Goat | Oklahoma State University (Non-Compassionate Source)

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    Listeriosis

    Listeriosis is most often the result of an infection caused by the bacteria Listeria monocytogenes which can be found in soil, water, and vegetation. Many species of animals can be affected by this disease and can shed the bacteria in their feces, even if they are not showing clinical signs of disease. This disease occurs more frequently in the winter and spring, and goats typically become exposed by ingesting plants contaminated with infective soil or feces. Listeriosis is often associated with feeding poor-quality silage (partially fermented forage), but can also be caused by ingesting moldy hay or rotting vegetation. Not all individuals carrying this bacteria will show clinical signs of disease, but when clinical signs are present, they typically manifest in one of the following ways: encephalitis, which is the most common manifestation, abortion, septicemia, mastitis, or ophthalmitis. Initial signs of the encephalitic form include depression and inappetence. Individuals often appear disoriented and may walk in circles towards their affected side (which is why listeriosis is sometimes called “circling disease”). They may develop facial paralysis on the affected side with a droopy ear and eyelid and loose lips. They may drool excessively and there may be food stuck in their cheek on the affected side because chewing is difficult. In severe cases, the individual may show more severe neurological signs, in which case the prognosis may be poor even with treatment. If you think a goat is suffering from listeriosis, it’s critical that you get a veterinary evaluation, as prompt, aggressive antibiotic treatment is imperative for successful recovery. If the individual is unable to eat or drink normally, supportive care will also be necessary. Individuals with listeriosis should be isolated from other residents. Listeriosis is a zoonotic disease, though most healthy humans do not become seriously ill. Humans most at risk of listeriosis are newborns, the elderly, and those who are pregnant or immunocompromised.

    Sources:

    Overview of Listeriosis | Merck Veterinary Manual

    Listeriosis In Sheep And Goats | Michigan State University Extension

    Sheep And Goat Medicine, Second Edition | D.G. Pugh And A.N. Baird  (Non-Compassionate Source)

    Listeriosis In Ruminants And Human Risk | Purdue University College Of Veterinary Medicine (Non-Compassionate Source)

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    Liver Flukes

    Though it is not the only species that can affect goats, Fasciola hepatica (Common Liver Fluke) is considered one of the most important flukes that affect small ruminants. This parasite has a very complicated life cycle involving a semi-aquatic “mud” snail as an intermediate host. Because both the snail host and the parasite require wet habitats and temperatures above 50° F (10° C), liver flukes tend to be a seasonal and regional concern. However, when conditions are right, it is possible for a large number of these parasites to be present.

    Because of its complexity, we’ll look at a simplified overview of the life cycle of F. hepatica (which is similar to other Fasciola species). Infected individuals pass eggs in their feces. Eggs only hatch in water, and once hatched, miracidia (ciliated larva) can only survive for a few hours. They immediately seek out an intermediate mud snail host, and once inside the snail, asexual development and multiplication occur. Eventually, infective cercariae (free-swimming larva) emerge from the egg (with timing depending on environmental temperature and moisture). Cercariae then migrate to wet vegetation where they encyst and become metacercariae. Individuals become infected by ingesting metacercariae, and following infection, young flukes eventually migrate to the liver.

    F. hepatica infection can cause acute or chronic disease. Migration of large numbers of young flukes causes acute fascioliasis, which can quickly become fatal. Signs of acute fascioliasis include refusal to eat, depression, weakness, labored breathing, anemia, abdominal pain, peritonitis, and dry feces. If individuals are not vaccinated against clostridial diseases, they can develop a co-infection with Clostridium novyi (causing infectious necrotic hepatitis or “black disease”), which results in sudden death. Chronic fascioliasis is the result of adult flukes in the bile ducts. Signs include anemia, bottle jaw, and weight loss. Heavy chronic infections can be fatal.

    Diagnosis of F. hepatica infection in living residents can be difficult but can be easily accomplished during a necropsy examination. While eggs can be detected in a fecal test, a negative result cannot rule out infection. Your veterinarian can make specific recommendations regarding diagnostics if infection is suspected or if the parasite is prevalent in your area. They can also make treatment recommendations. Anthelmintic resistance can further complicate treatment. The timing of treatment is also important, so be sure to work closely with your veterinarian to ensure the most appropriate treatment plan is implemented. Preventing residents from accessing wet areas where mud snails may be present can help limit exposure to these parasites, particularly during times of year when the risk is high.

    As mentioned earlier, F. hepatica is not the only fluke species that can affect goats. One of the other species of note is Fascioloides magna, whose definitive hosts include deer, elk, and moose. Even one of these flukes can cause extensive damage and death in goats due to “aimless wandering” through the liver. Diagnosis and treatment are difficult. In areas where conditions are right and definitive hosts are present, you’ll want to work closely with your veterinarian to establish a plan to reduce your residents’ risk of this infection.

    Sources:

    Fasciola Hepatica In Ruminants | Merck Veterinary Manual

    Liver Fluke | Sustainable Control Of Parasites

    Life Cycle Of The Liver Fluke: Fasciola Hepatica | David Barlow

    Sheep And Goat Medicine, Second Edition | D.G. Pugh And A.N. Baird (Non-Compassionate Source)

    Large Animal Internal Medicine 5th Edition | Bradford P. Smith (Non-Compassionate Source)

    Diagnosis, Treatment, And Prevention Of Common Small Ruminant Parasites | Dr. Mary Smith, DVM (Non-Compassionate Source)

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    Lungworms

    There are multiple lungworm species that can affect sheep and goats – the most important being Dictyocaulus filaria, Muellerius capillaris, and Protostrongylus rufescens

    D. filaria is the most pathogenic of the lungworm species that can affect goats. Unlike the other two species, it has a direct life cycle. Infection most often occurs in young goats but adults can also be affected. Female D. filaria lay eggs in the lungs which are then coughed up, swallowed, and hatch into first-stage larvae before being passed in feces. Larvae develop into infective third-stage larvae on the pasture – how quickly this occurs depends on environmental factors. Goats become infected by ingesting infective larvae while grazing. The larvae continue their development inside the host and travel to the lungs to start the process again. Signs of D. filaria infection include coughing, nasal discharge, elevated respiratory rate, labored breathing, chronic fever, poor appetite, and weight loss. 

    M. capillaris is the most common lungworm species to affect sheep and goats. While sheep rarely show signs of illness from this infection, goats can be more severely affected and may develop interstitial pneumonia. M. capillaris has an indirect life cycle and requires an intermediate snail or slug host. Female M. capillaris lay eggs in the lungs that hatch into first-stage larvae. These larvae are coughed up, swallowed, and passed in the feces. Larvae then penetrate their intermediate host and develop into infective third-stage larvae. Goats become infected by ingesting snails or slugs containing infective larva while grazing. The larva continues to develop and travels back to the lungs to start the cycle again. Signs of M. capillaris include coughing, labored breathing, and failure to gain weight. 

    P. rufescens infections are typically subclinical or mild, but serious illness is possible. P. rufescens is rare in North America. This parasite has a similar life cycle to M. capillaris. Infection can cause diarrhea, weight loss, mucopurulent nasal discharge, elevated respiratory rate, and increased respiratory sounds.

    Diagnosis of lungworm infections can be difficult. In addition to looking at clinical signs, a fresh fecal sample can be evaluated using the Baermann technique to identify larvae. Fecal samples should be fresh, and it’s best to collect feces directly from the rectum. If lungworm is suspected in a deceased resident, diagnosis can be made during a necropsy examination. Damage from lungworm infections can lead to secondary infections. Your veterinarian can recommend an appropriate treatment based on the species of lungworm and also your sanctuary’s overall parasite management plan. M. capillaris may require higher doses or repeat treatment in order to kill immature worms.

    Sources:

    Overview Of Lungworm Infection | Merck Veterinary Manual

    Lungworm | Worm Boss

    Sheep And Goat Medicine, Second Edition | D.G. Pugh And A.N. Baird  (Non-Compassionate Source)

    Large Animal Internal Medicine 5th Edition | Bradford P. Smith (Non-Compassionate Source)

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    Mange

    Mange is a skin condition caused by a mite infestation. There are multiple types of mange that can affect goats, with the most common being demodectic, sarcoptic, chorioptic, and psoroptic mange. Diagnosis may involve a skin scraping and microscopic identification of the mite, but in some cases your veterinarian may recommend a certain treatment based on clinical signs alone and will monitor their response to treatment in order to help confirm the diagnosis. Treatment depends on the type of mange, and in some cases, the severity of clinical signs, and typically comes in pour-on, injectable, and topical formulations.

    Demodectic Mange

    Caused by Demodex caprae, demodectic mange is very common in goats and primarily affects younger individuals. Demodectic mange causes nodules, typically on the face, neck, shoulders, sides, or udder. These nodules do not cause itching and can grow in size over one to two years as the mites multiply. Nodules fill with a thick, waxy substance that contains microscopic mites. Severe infestations are usually a sign of a compromised immune system.

    Sarcoptic Mange

    Caused by the burrowing mite Sarcoptes scabiei var caprae (sometimes called the scabies mite), this type of mange can cause alopecia, crusting and thickening of the skin, and itchiness. Lesions typically first appear on the head and neck and then spread to other areas of the body. Because this mite burrows into the skin, they can be difficult to find on skin scrapings- a negative skin scraping does not rule out the possibility of sarcoptic mange. S. scabiei var caprae is spread primarily via direct contact with infected individuals and is zoonotic. While it is not the same mite as the one that causes scabies in humans, S. scabiei var caprae can be transmitted to humans but will be self-limiting. 

    Chorioptic Mange

    The Chorioptes mite does not burrow under the skin and instead lives on the skin’s surface. Chorioptic mange often affects a goat’s feet and legs, especially the area under the dewclaws. Crusty and scaly skin, alopecia, redness, and itchiness are common signs. Individuals may be seen stomping or chewing at feet due to itchiness and discomfort. Severe lesions may result in secondary bacterial infection, requiring antibiotics. In some cases, a corticosteroid may be recommended in addition to a treatment to kill the mites.

    Psoroptic Ear Mange (Ear Mites)

    As the name suggests, this type of mange, caused by Psoroptes cuniculi, affects the ears of goats, though psoroptic mange can spread to the head, neck, and other areas of the body. Common signs of psoroptic ear mites include head shaking and scratching of ears. Your veterinarian may recommend a treatment applied directly into the ears to treat these mites.

    Sources:

    Mange In Sheep And Goats | Merck Veterinary Manual (Non-Compassionate Source)

    Mange | Mary Smith, DVM, Cornell University  (Non-Compassionate Source)

    Sheep And Goat Medicine, Second Edition | D.G. Pugh And A.N. Baird  (Non-Compassionate Source)

    External Parasites Of Goat | Oklahoma State University (Non-Compassionate Source)

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    Mastitis

    Mastitis is inflammation of the udder and can be caused by injury, stress, bacterial infection (often caused by Streptococcus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Pasteurella sp., or coliforms, such as E. coli), and can also be the result of unsanitary housing. Additionally, CAE can also manifest as mastitis. Individuals with clinical mastitis will often have a hot, swollen, and painful udder. Other symptoms of clinical mastitis include fever, inappetance, and depression, and mothers may not let their babies nurse due to the associated pain. Babies will need to be bottle fed to ensure they are getting the nutrients they need. In cases of severe mastitis, the udder may become bluish in color due to issues with blood supply- this is often referred to as “blue bag”. Mastitis can also be sub-clinical. In this situation, the individual usually appears healthy, but their udder may have firm masses in it, and if they are lactating, they will have a reduction in milk. Be sure to contact your veterinarian if you suspect one of your residents has mastitis. They can recommend diagnostics to determine the cause and appropriate treatment, which typically consists of injectable or intramammary antibiotics and pain medication. In some cases, mastectomy may be advised. 

    Sources:

    Mastitis In Ewes And Does | Maryland Small Ruminant Page (Non-Compassionate Source)

    Mastitis In Small Ruminants | IFAS Extension University Of Florida (Non-Compassionate Source)

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    Overgrown Hooves

    While some goats may naturally wear down their hooves through regular activity, many sanctuary goat residents will need their hooves trimmed to prevent them from becoming overgrown. Typically, a goat needs their hooves trimmed once every six to ten weeks, although older goats and less active individuals (including those with Arthritis or CAE) may need more frequent trimming. Without regular trimming, the hoof wall will grow past the soft sole of the goat’s foot and begin to curl over on their toe, which can create painful walking conditions and trap dirt tightly against the area between the sole and hoof wall. It will also begin to grow on the heel, creating an uneven surface for the goat to walk on. If a goat seems to have difficulty or reluctance walking, check out their feet. You might be far past due for a trimming by that point! If their hooves are significantly overgrown due to a lack of hoof maintenance, such as in the event of a newly rescued goat, you may need to spread trimming out over a couple sessions. During the first trimming you can work to bring the hooves closer to a reasonable length and shape, and then come back a few days or a week later to do the finishing touches. If hooves are significantly overgrown or misshapen and you are unsure of how to address them, be sure to consult with your veterinarian for assistance. For more information on hoof trimming, check out our resource here.

    Source:

    How To Trim A Goat’s Hooves | The Open Sanctuary Project

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    Parelaphostrongylus Tenuis (Meningeal Worm, Deer Worm, Brain Worm)

    Parelaphostrongylus tenuis is a parasitic worm whose natural host is the white-tailed deer. Goats, as well as sheep and camelids, living in areas with white-tailed deer populations can also become infected by this parasite but are considered aberrant, or unnatural hosts. In these species, the parasite can cause significant issues not typically seen in white-tailed deer. P. tenuis requires an intermediate terrestrial snail or slug host. Natural and aberrant hosts become infected by ingesting infective snails or slugs.

    There are two common manifestations of this parasitic infection – one presents as neurological issues, and the other presents as skin issues. Neurological symptoms typically start with slight weakness or dragging of one or both hind legs, which can then develop into more severe ataxia and even hind limb paralysis. When presenting as a skin issue, symptoms include excessive itching and hair loss – typically in vertical stripes on the body. In rare instances, an affected individual may develop a head tilt, walk in circles, have rapid eye movements, and have a hard time chewing. 

    Presumptive diagnoses are made based on clinical signs and exposure risk – a fecal test will not detect P. tenuis in goats. In some cases, examination of the cerebrospinal fluid may be recommended to help support the presumptive diagnosis, but this requires anesthesia and will not result in a definitive diagnosis. Absolute confirmation of P. tenuis can only be made during a post-mortem examination. Treatment typically includes a combination of multiple dewormers (often at higher and/or more frequent doses than when used to treat other parasites) and an anti-inflammatory medication. With prompt treatment, even individuals with more severe symptoms can make a full recovery, though some may have residual weakness for the remainder of their lives. If left untreated, paralysis and other neurological symptoms can become permanent.

    Sources:

    Meningeal Worm – Deer Worm – Brain Worm | Maryland Small Ruminant Page

    Deer Worm Factsheet | Cornell Sheep & Goat Program and Cornell Ambulatory Veterinary Services (Non-Compassionate Source)

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    Pink Eye

    The term “pink eye” is often used to describe infectious keratoconjunctivitis can be caused by various microorganisms, but the most common are Mycoplasma and Chlamydophila, especially Mycoplasma conjunctivae and Chlamydophila pecorum. Initial signs of infectious keratoconjunctivitis typically include squinting, watery eyes, and sensitivity to light. The affected eye(s) will be red and inflamed. As the condition progresses, they may develop thick discharge from the eye and the eye will become cloudy. In some cases, individuals may develop  a corneal ulcer or become temporarily or even permanently blind. Be sure to contact your veterinarian if one of your residents is showing signs of an eye issue, as prompt treatment is imperative. Because of the contagious nature of infectious keratoconjunctivitis, individuals showing signs of this disease, as well as those who have had direct contact with them, should be isolated from residents who have not been exposed. The disease can be spread via direct contact with infectious eye discharge but can also be spread via fomites and flies. Most causes of infectious keratoconjunctivitis in sheep and goats are bacterial and typically respond to treatment with tetracycline drugs. Your veterinarian will likely recommend treatment with an antibiotic eye ointment, after cleaning away any discharge or crusts, and may also prescribe systemic antibiotic treatment. In some cases your veterinarian may determine that more advanced treatments are necessary. While individuals are healing, it is important to protect them from eye irritants such as flies, wind, dust, and rough hay or pasture and to house them in a shady area. If the affected individual has become blind, they may need additional accommodations to keep them calm and comfortable, and you will want to make sure they are easily able to find food and water. Depending on the underlying cause, individuals can continue to spread infection for months after they have stopped showing signs of illness. Your veterinarian can recommend diagnostics to determine the cause and can make specific recommendations based on the results.

    Sources:

    Sheep And Goat Medicine, Second Edition | D.G. Pugh And A.N. Baird  (Non-Compassionate Source)

    Contagious Keratoconjunctivitis (Pinkeye) | Maryland Small Ruminant Page (Non-Compassionate Source)

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    Pizzle End Rot

    Pizzle end rot, or ulcerative posthitis (sometimes also called “sheath rot”) mostly affects neutered males. It can be the result of a high protein diet, such as from grazing on lush pastures, but can also have a non-dietary cause. High protein intake causes the concentration of urea in the urine to increase. Bacteria that are part of the local flora, such as Corynebacterium renale, break down the urea, releasing excess ammonia. The ammonia then leads to irritation and ulceration of the prepuce. Once the skin is ulcerated, it is vulnerable to bacteria. Alternatively, if an individual’s hair or wool is long and covers their prepuce, it will become soaked with urine, resulting in irritation and an environment that is conducive to bacteria growth. Pizzle end rot manifests as inflammation and scabbing of the prepuce which can range from mild to severe, and in severe cases, the inflammation or scabbing can interfere with urination. Treatment of mild cases of pizzle end rot may only require cleaning and application of an antibacterial ointment. More severe cases may require veterinary involvement to evaluate the extent of the infection, debride the area, and prescribe systemic antibiotics and pain medication. During fly season, pizzle end rot can attract flies, resulting in fly strike, so be sure to monitor the area closely and take steps to protect the area from flies. It’s important to identify the underlying cause and consider what changes can be implemented to prevent the issue from recurring. If caused by long hair or wool, regularly shaving the area around the prepuce or frequently monitoring for signs of urine build-up and cleaning the area as needed can help prevent future issues.

    Sources:

    Sheep And Goat Medicine, Second Edition | D.G. Pugh And A.N. Baird  (Non-Compassionate Source)

    Pizzle Rot In Sheep | Ontario Ministry Of Agriculture, Food, And Rural Affairs (Non-Compassionate Source)

    Enzootic Posthitis And Vulvitis In Sheep And Goats | Merck Veterinary Manual (Non-Compassionate Source)

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    Pneumonia

    While far from being the only respiratory disease that affects goats, pneumonia is one of the most common conditions that affects their lower respiratory tract. Pneumonia can be caused by various pathogens including bacteria, viruses, and parasites, or even a combination of these. Some potential causes of pneumonia include the pneumatic form of CAE, internal CL abscesses in the lungs, and lungworm infections, though there are numerous other bacteria and viruses that can cause pneumonia in small ruminants. 

    Certain conditions can increase an individual’s risk of developing pneumonia. Poor ventilation, unsanitary living spaces, and high levels of dust (such as from dusty bedding or dusty hay) can put residents at risk and should be avoided. Additionally, extreme temperature fluctuations can also put residents at risk, and some sanctuaries note that pneumonia tends to be a concern when the seasons change. Individuals can also develop aspiration pneumonia if they inhale food, water, or medications into their airways. Inappropriate administration of large amounts of liquid medication (such as dewormers) is a common cause of aspiration in adults (bottle feeding is a common cause in neonates).

    Be sure to watch residents closely for signs of pneumonia which include dullness, lethargy, coughing, fever, labored breathing, an elevated respiratory rate, and nasal discharge. Contact your veterinarian if one of your residents is showing signs of pneumonia. It will be important that they evaluate the individual and run any necessary diagnostics in order to determine the underlying cause. Based on their findings and diagnostic results, they can determine an appropriate treatment plan. In the case of a contagious cause, your veterinarian can also make recommendations in regards to protecting other residents.

    Sources:

    Overview Of Respiratory Diseases Of Sheep And Goats | Merck Veterinary Manual

    Pneumonia In Sheep And Goats | Dave Van Metre, DVM, DACVIM  Professor / Extension Veterinarian, Colorado State University

    Common Diseases And Health Problems In Sheep And Goats | Purdue Extension (Non-Compassionate Source)

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    Sheep Nasal Bot Fly

    Oestrus ovis, often called the sheep nasal bot, sheep nose bot, or simply the sheep bot, is found worldwide, but is most common in warm climates. While sheep are most commonly affected by O. ovis, goats can be affected as well. The female fly deposits small (less than 2mm long), clear-white larvae in the host’s nostrils. These larvae then travel into the nasal cavities and sinuses where they develop over a period of 1-10 months before returning to the host’s nostrils. The host sneezes the mature larvae out of their nostrils, and larvae then drop to the ground to pupate in the soil. Adult flies attempting to deposit larvae will cause agitation in goats who may be seen running in an attempt to get away from them or may keep their nose close to the ground. Other signs of agitation from adult O. ovis flies include head shaking, head rubbing, and foot stomping. The presence of larvae causes irritation to nasal passages and sinuses resulting in profuse nasal discharge which starts out as clear mucus and then becomes mucopurulent and may be tinged with blood. Other symptoms include sneezing fits, nose rubbing, and reduced airflow through the nares. O. ovis infestations can lead to bacterial rhinitis or sinusitis and, less often, interstitial pneumonia. Often, clinical signs are enough for your veterinarian to make a presumptive diagnosis, and response to treatment can help confirm. Ivermectin is effective against all stages of O. ovis larvae.

    Sources:

    Sheep Nose Bot | Merck Veterinary Manual

    Sheep And Goat Medicine, Second Edition | D.G. Pugh And A.N. Baird  (Non-Compassionate Source)

    Large Animal Internal Medicine 5th Edition | Bradford P. Smith (Non-Compassionate Source)

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    Sore Mouth (Or, Orf)

    Sore mouth is a highly contagious viral disease caused by a poxvirus that can affect both sheep and goats. It enters an individual through cuts or abrasions of their skin, and a nursing goat kid with sore mouth could also spread the disease to their mother’s udder. Sore mouth symptoms include blister-like lesions in less hairy parts of the goat’s body, often on their lips and mouth, with the blisters eventually becoming scabs. While adults with sore mouth typically continue eating, goat kids with severe lesions may be reluctant to eat, in which case tube feeding may be necessary (this must be performed by a veterinarian or experienced caregiver to avoid potentially fatal consequences). There is no treatment for sore mouth, but the condition will usually resolve within 3-6 weeks barring any complications. In some cases, topical or systemic antibiotics may be recommended to address secondary bacterial infections. While this disease is most common in younger goats and sheep, adults can also become infected. Immunity after infection typically lasts 2-3 years, though after the initial infection, any subsequent infections tend to be less severe. Sore mouth can be spread to humans (though it manifests differently in humans, resulting in a single lesion, often on the hand), so it is imperative that anyone interacting with an individual with sore mouth wears gloves and other protective coverings. Sheep and goats with sore mouth could continue to spread the disease for weeks after lesions have healed, and individuals can be carriers of the disease (and spread it to others) without ever showing symptoms.

    Sources:

    Sheep And Goat Medicine, Second Edition | D.G. Pugh And A.N. Baird  (Non-Compassionate Source)

    Contagious Ecthyma – Commonly Known As Orf | Ontario Ministry Of Agriculture, Food, And Rural Affairs (Non-Compassionate Source)

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    Tapeworms

    Tapeworms are long, flat, segmented worms that live in the intestinal tract of their host. The most common tapeworm that affects sheep and goats is Moniezia expansa. Tapeworms require an intermediate host, and in the case of the species that affect sheep and goats, the intermediate host is a pasture mite. Pastures contain millions of these free-living mites, which are regularly ingested by sheep and goats while grazing. They become infected by ingesting mites containing tapeworm larvae. Larvae will then continue developing in the host’s small intestine. Tapeworms attach to the wall of the small intestine and absorb nutrients through their skin. Tapeworms are constantly creating additional segments, and mature tapeworms can have hundreds or even thousands of segments. Tapeworms shed their segments, which are full of eggs. You may find segments in your resident’s feces or you may even see stands of many segments being passed by your residents. In addition to seeing segments, tapeworm eggs can be identified during a fecal exam, but because eggs are not evenly distributed in the feces, the egg count cannot be used to estimate the severity of the infestation. It’s possible for a fecal exam to come back negative for tapeworm eggs despite the fact that the individual has been seen passing tapeworm segments.

    There seems to be some debate as to whether or not tapeworm infestations in sheep and goats require treatment or not. If one of your residents has tapeworms and also appears ill, we recommend working with your veterinarian to discuss treatment options and also to assess if there is an additional issue going on (such as another parasitic infestation, like barber pole worm). Be sure to work with your veterinarian to establish an overall parasite management strategy and to make deworming decisions that take into consideration all of the parasitic challenges and any resistance issues present at your sanctuary. 

    Sources:

    Disgusting Tapeworms! | ACSRPC (Non-Compassionate Source)

    Tapeworms: Problem Or Not? | Maryland Small Ruminant Page (Non-Compassionate Source)

    Tapeworms: Problem Or Not? | MSU Extension (Non-Compassionate Source)

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    Thiamine Deficiency

    Thiamine deficiency is the most common cause of Polioencephalomalacia (PEM) in sheep and goats, though PEM can be caused by other factors such as sulfur toxicosis, salt poisoning, or lead poisoning. While kids and lambs who have not yet begun to ruminante rely on dietary thiamine (vitamin B1), once sheep and goats start ruminating, healthy rumen microflora produce necessary levels of this vitamin. Because it is water soluble, long-term storage of thiamine in the body is not possible. Therefore, if something occurs that disrupts the normal production of thiamine or causes an individual to require higher levels of thiamine than normal, individuals can quickly become deficient. Rumen acidosis, certain plants, and some medications can put an individual at an increased risk of developing a thiamine deficiency. 

    Symptoms develop quickly and include behavioral changes, blindness, incoordination, head pressing, backward arching of the neck (so that the head is held high or bent towards their back), muscle tremors, seizures, and rapid eye movements. Thiamine deficiency is often diagnosed based on clinical signs, consideration of the specifics of the situation, and response to thiamine replacement therapy (however, response to thiamine can not rule out another cause of PEM, so be sure to talk about this possibility with your veterinarian). Using diagnostic testing to confirm thiamine deficiency is difficult, and most labs are not equipped to run the specialized tests necessary. 

    Be sure to contact your veterinarian immediately if one of your residents is showing signs of thiamine deficiency – prompt intervention is imperative and includes administration of thiamine. Depending on the severity of symptoms, your veterinarian may recommend the first dose of thiamine be administered intravenously, but adverse reactions are possible, so this should be done by your veterinarian. They may also recommend an NSAID or steroid treatment, and supportive care may also be necessary. 

    In the US, concentrated thiamine injectable formulas are prescription only. B complex formulas that are available at farm supply stores contain much lower concentrations of thiamine and are unlikely to be effective in treating thiamine deficiency. We recommend talking to your veterinarian about keeping thiamine on-hand to be used under their guidance. 

    Sources:

    Polioencephalomalacia in Ruminants | Merck Veterinary Manual

    Sheep And Goat Medicine, Second Edition | D.G. Pugh And A.N. Baird  (Non-Compassionate Source)

    Polioencephalomalacia | Michigan State University (Non-Compassionate Source)

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    Urinary Calculi

    Urolithiasis, or the formation of urinary calculi (stones or crystals) in the urinary tract, can affect both males and females but is especially common in males and can result in a life-threatening urinary blockage. Urinary calculi often form as a result of dietary issues. Struvite and apatite stones are most commonly seen in goats eating diets high in grain concentrates, while calcium carbonate stones are more common in goats who are eating diets containing lots of legumes. There are other types of stones that can be caused by eating plants containing high levels of certain compounds (such as silica). Be sure to talk with your veterinarian about the risks associated with your region and pasture/forage make-up. 

    One of the more common causes of urinary calculi is an imbalance of calcium-to-phosphorus in the diet. Generally, you should strive for a 2:1 calcium-to-phosphorus ratio. To help prevent urinary calculi, avoid feeding cereal grains (for example oats and corn), legumes (alfalfa and clover), and grain concentrates as much as possible. While some sources suggest that male goats can have grain as long as there is ammonium chloride added, long-term supplementation of ammonium chloride puts them at risk of developing metabolic acidosis and decreased bone density. Overall, it’s better to avoid feeding grain unless there is a medical reason for a resident to receive it.

    While urinary calculi can develop anywhere in the urinary tract, they can result in a full or partial obstruction when located in the urethra. Males who are neutered at a very young age are more prone to urinary obstruction if they develop a stone because they have a narrower urethra than males who are neutered closer to 5 months of age. We recommend having a discussion with your veterinarian regarding the best age at which to neuter your male goat residents, specifically asking about the increased risk of urinary blockages in males neutered at a younger age. 

    Signs of a urinary blockage include straining to urinate, posturing as if to urinate but not actually doing so (“sawhorse stance”), head pressing, lethargy, inappetence, and signs of pain such as vocalizing, kicking at their belly, and tooth grinding. This is a very painful condition, but some individuals will mask their pain until they are no longer able to do so; therefore, it is important to catch the more subtle signs of concern. If a resident is showing non-specific signs of a potential urinary blockage (such as inappetence, head pressing, or tooth grinding), as long as they are currently stable and alert, it can be helpful to spend a little bit of time watching to see if they urinate (or attempt to urinate) so you can gather more information. If they struggle to urinate, have bloody urine, are seen dribbling only a small amount of urine at a time, or have crystals or sandy deposits on the hair around their prepuce, these are additional signs of a full or partial blockage. 

    If you suspect a urinary blockage, contact your veterinarian immediately – if left untreated, urinary blockages can result in bladder rupture and, ultimately, death. Because surgical intervention is often required, we strongly recommend anyone with a suspected urinary blockage be hospitalized as soon as possible. However, in the case of a partial obstruction, if the individual is still passing some urine and is up and alert, your veterinarian may recommend evaluating the individual on-site to determine if hospitalization is necessary. 

    In addition to avoiding foods that are known to cause urinary calculi, make sure residents always have ample access to fresh water and that the minerals you provide offer the proper ratio of calcium-to-phosphorus. Be sure to look at their food sources, minerals, supplements, and water make-up holistically, working closely with your veterinarian to determine if changes need to be made. If an individual develops urinary calculi, be sure to have the stone analyzed so you know what type of stone you are dealing with and can take appropriate measures to prevent future issues, both for the individual and other residents. 

    Sources:

    Sheep And Goat Medicine, Second Edition | D.G. Pugh And A.N. Baird  (Non-Compassionate Source)

    Urolithiasis in Large Animals | Merck Veterinary Manual (Non-Compassionate Source)

    Urolithiasis in Small Ruminants | American College Of Veterinary Surgeons (Non-Compassionate Source)

    Large Animal Internal Medicine 5th Edition | Bradford P. Smith (Non-Compassionate Source)

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    White Muscle Disease

    White muscle disease is a degenerative disease that can be found in sheep and goats as well as other large mammals. It is caused by a nutritional deficiency of selenium, Vitamin E, or both and can affect heart muscle, skeletal muscle, or both. When the skeletal muscle is affected, a goat may have an arched back, appear to be hunched over, and move very stiffly, though signs can be less obvious with the individual only having minor stiffness. Goats with severe white muscle disease may not be able to stand or even sit upright. Kids with white muscle disease may be too weak to nurse. When the heart is affected, the individual may have a fever, nasal discharge that is frothy and possibly blood-tinged, and will have difficulty breathing. Individuals with white muscle disease may also have a weakened immune system, making them vulnerable to other diseases. Selenium deficiency tends to be a regional issue with some areas having selenium deficient soil, which results in forages that are low in selenium. Adequate levels of vitamin E are typically found in fresh grass and legumes, but in dried hay vitamin E levels are low. Therefore, goats who do not have ample opportunities to graze and are primarily fed hay are more at risk of developing a vitamin E deficiency. If you suspect one of your residents has white muscle disease, contact your veterinarian for evaluation and to discuss treatment options. Selenium and vitamin E levels can be assessed through blood testing, and treatment involves appropriate selenium and/ or vitamin E supplementation based on your veterinarian’s recommendations. While commercial products containing both vitamin E and selenium are available, additional vitamin E supplementation is usually necessary to treat a vitamin E deficiency because of the low levels found in many of these products. Follow your veterinarian’s recommendations. The best prevention is to ensure that goats have access to nutritional sources that provide appropriate amounts of vitamin E and selenium throughout the year, routinely monitor your residents’ vitamin E and selenium levels through blood testing, and to provide appropriate supplementation as needed.

    Sources:

    White Muscle Disease In Sheep And Goats | Michigan State University Extension

    White Muscle Disease In Small Ruminants | Ohio State University

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    Non-Compassionate Source?

    If a source includes the (Non-Compassionate Source) tag, it means that we do not endorse that particular source’s views about animals, even if some of their insights are valuable from a care perspective. See a more detailed explanation here.

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